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SOCB05; LEC04.docx

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Rania Salem

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LEC04 - sampling - the logic of causation - units of analysis and the ecological fallacy - types of survey designs - formulating a research question and hypotheses SAMPLING IN QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEACH - in quantitative research (surveys), probability sampling is favoured. This is because most statistical analysis assumes that the sample elements have an equal probability of selection - in qualitative research (field observation, qualitative interviewing, oral histories) probability sampling methods are possible, but rarely used. Instead non probability sampling is used IDIOGRAPHIC AND NOMOTHEIC MODELS OF EXPLANATION - idiographic explanations- what are all the factors that may have caused the phenomenon of interest? o The bigger the number identified, the better o List different types of causes that may underlie a given phenomenon  The more the numbers are, the more holistic the graphic will be - Nomothetic explanations- what are the most important factors that caused the phenomenon of interest? o Identify the causal factors that most effectively predict most or all of the cases is best o Noma; law o Try to arrive to a general rule that would apply to the greatest number of cases possible o Probabilistic  Deal with probability of something happening o Causal factors presence does not necessarily guarantee the outcome of the interest  Effect that we are interested in may not always be present  Raises the chances that the outcome would be observed o There are always exceptions to rules  They are not disproven if there are exceptions  Generally, …………. o They do not have to apply to the majority of cases  Less than 50% of all university degree holders in Canada earn less than 6 figures  Doesn’t change the fact that the higher proportion of graduates have 6 figure jobs than non graduates  Pattern still holds ESTABLISHING CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS - correlation o an empirical relationship between two variables where:  changes in one variable are associated with changes in the other   ex. Grades and studying  particular attributes of one variable are associated with particular attributes of the other - temporal ordering o the cause most precede the effect in time, not vice versa  some attributes are fixed at birth, so the cause-effect sequence is easy to establish  with other variables, it is difficult to determine temporal ordering - non-spuriousness o spuriousness relationship= a correlation between two variables that is actually caused by a third variable o you can control for a third variable and if the correlation between independent and dependent disappears, then you know there’s a spurious relation between them  aka confounder or antecedent NECESSARY AND S
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