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SOCB05; LEC03.docx

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Rania Salem

SOCB05; LEC03 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY REVIEW - reliable measures; are consistent or repeatable over several observations o should get the same results - valid measures; ‘fit’ or align with the agreed-upon meaning of the concept they intend to measure o relativity FINAL NOTES ON RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY - many researchers avoid the issues of reliability and validity by borrowing measures that have established records - a highly unreliable measure cannot be valid - a reliable measure is not necessarily valid - validity is maximized by qualitative methods - reliability is maximized by quantitative methods DEFINING COMPOSITE MEASURES - composite measures; consist of several indicators that try to: o capture the different dimensions of a concept, or o capture the different manifestations of a dimension DEFINING INDEXES - indexes; involve indicators that are given equal scores, and are constructed by summing scores assigned to individual indicators o example; political activism index  1 or 2 DEFINING SCALES - scales; assign scores to patters of responses; they usually recognize that some responses reflect the concept weakly and others strongly o example; political activism scale  number vary  they are ranked, so they vary  stronger or weaker presence in the concept that is used DEFINING THE TOW MAIN SAMPLING TECHNIQUES IN SURVEY RESEARCH - sampling; the process of selecting cases - probability sampling; sampling based on a process of random selection that gives each case in the population an equal or known chance of being included in the sample - non-probability sampling; sampling based on a process other than random selection PROBABILITY SAMPLING; KEY TERMS - elements; units or cases of interest o don’t have to be individual or people but can be large units - population; the theoretically specified aggregation of the elements of a study o all of the elements o do a census  survey every single person in the population - sample; the elements of a population actually selected for observation in a study o select subset of population - sampling frame; the list of elements from which a probability sample is selected o ex. Uoft student  list of those who are enrolled at that point in time  those who were late would not be admitted into the sample and would cause it to be bias - representative sample; a sample that contains the same distribution of characteristics that exist in the population - generalizability; that quality of a research finding that justifies the claim that it represents something more than the specific observation on which it was based - parameter; summary description of a variable in a population - statistic; summary description of a variable in sample, used to estimate a population parameter - sampling error; the different between a population value (parameter) and a sa
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