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SOCB05; LEC05.docx

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Rania Salem

SOCB05; LEC05 RESEARCH DESIGN; FORMULATING A RESEARCH QUESTION - from the general; o what are the patterns of altruism? o When, where, and how is it likely to occur? o What explains altruism?  Something that is done voluntarily - To the particular; o Are individuals more likely to act altruistically when the person in need of help is from the same racial group? - Express or ask a question about the relationship between two or more variables o What is the relationship between independent variable and dependent variable? o How does independent variable affect dependent variable? - The variables should be observable or potentially observable RESEARCH DESIGN; POSING HYPOTHESES - if-then statements; hypotheses where you posit that if one condition holds, then another will also hold o if a person has a low level of education, then he or she will have a high level of prejudice - continuous statements; hypotheses of the form of ‘greater the x, the greater/ lesser the y’ o the greater a persons years of education, the lower her/his level of prejudice - different statements; hypotheses that assert that one variable differs in terms of categories of another variable o people with high education are less prejudiced than people with low education - something with two or more variables - should indicate what variable predicts or causes the other - should also state how changes in one variable are related to changes in another variable CODING QUANTITATIVE DATA - coding; the process of assigning numeric labels to question response categories after data has been collected - close-ended questions; assign a number to each of the response categories already laid out in the survey question - open-ended questions; develop a coding scheme that reduces the number of responses by combining multiple responses under one code, while retaining meaningful distinctions between responses o grouping them into categories would be a very long process  everyone ahs different responses o make a coding scheme that doesn’t have one for everyone, but makes them smaller o inexperienced researchers use too few categories may gloss over potential meaningful information o no way to recover lost information o better to use too many categories rather than too little CODEBOOKS - codebook; a document that lists the exact wording of the survey question, notes the abbreviation given to the question in the dataset, and defines the meaning of the numeric codes assigned to each variable in the data DATA CLEANING - once your data have been entered into your data analysis software, you must detect and correct errors in (clean) the data o random re-entry of data from the questionnaires to the data program o possible-code cleaning to check that only possible codes appear in the data file o contingency cleaning assures that only those cases that should have answered a question have data for that question o consistency checking ensures that responses are related to one another in reasonable ways THE FUNCTIONS OF STATISTICS - statistic; summary statement - descriptive statistics; concerned with organizing and summarizing the data at hand to make them mo
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