Lecture 2.docx

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Katherine( Katy) De Celles

Lecture 2; Chapter 4 Beginning of research  Social research is considered to have 2 orientation 1. Applied  Solve particular problems/look at specific aspects of the social world  Sponsored by agencies and large corporations, implemented by the government  Use outside of academia; lawyers, social work and so on 2. Basic  Does not have a practical purpose  Not to solve shit, just to look at it  Three main purposes of research 1. Exploration  To become more familiar of a research topic of field  Problems that are yet to be defined  It is a very new topic, cannot draw an easy conclusion to it  Help satisfy research curiosity  Testing feasibility for extensive research  Help with future research  Challenging, because few guidelines to follow, and research might change as you progress in research 2. Description  Answers the five W and how  No analysis or explanation  Government sponsored research; census population  Studies Crime, ethnic, etc…  Stats can either be concrete (age, gender, population) or abstract (level of inequality, etc…)  Cannot describe the cause of the relationship  Represents a descriptive detail of behaviour or situation  Requires a focus research question  Blurs with or follows from explorative research  Focuses on how and who  Is ness. For explanative research 3. Explanation  Casual and explanation, answers to why certain events happen  Exp, how gender is related to income  Goes, above and beyond descriptive research  Help identify the real reason why something occurs  Identifies, cause and effects of a social phenomena  Focuses on why or the reason why a situation occurs  Builds upon exploratory or descriptive research  Uses theory Logic of Causation  Scientific explanations; rest on the idea that events and conditions have causes  A language variables  Dependent variable (effect) is explained by the presence of the independent variable (cause)  Exogenous variable – independent  Variables and attributes  Attributes are the variables take, how the variable is measured  variable has to have at least two attributes, otherwise it is a constable  Variables can be both independent or dependent, depending on the given example  Necessary vs. sufficient causes  Cause can be either, neither or one of another  Necessary, even though it can cause, it doesn’t mean it can lead to an effect  Sufficient causes guarantee of an effect, but it is not the only possible cause Conditions for causation  What are the needs for a relationship to be
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