Lecture 3.docx

4 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCB05H3
Professor
Katherine( Katy) De Celles

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Description
Lecture 3. Social scientist studies three classes of things;  Directly observable; visual  Indirectly observable; something that can be explained  Constructs; Theoretical creations which are based on observations, but cannot being directly or indirectly observed. Exp; I.Q, etc…  E.G; You can treat gender as 1. Directly observable (gender presentation) 2. Indirectly observable (check box) 3. A construct where you develop dimensions Concepts and constructs: Concept;  Real phenomenon /agreed upon phenomenon (beauty, not visual but it’s there)  this leads to construct (socially constructed)  Mental representations and are typically based on experience  Concept is known as a construct when we know it’s socially created Conceptualization;  Taking a raw idea and giving it an idea  The process of coming to an agreement about what concepts mean and represent with regards to social and physical reality  The stage in social research at which we specify what we mean when we use particular terms (concepts)  Telling a reader what the words mean  People might have different understandings of what a concept might be, due to social class, race, sex, historical meaning and so on… From conceptualization to operationalization:  From conceptualization, the researcher creates a nominal definition to identify the focus of the study  Nominal definition of concept  there are no real definitions, not inherent or concrete  Instead how a definition should be use and define in a specific definition  Operational definitions of concepts  we lay out the steps of exactly how we are going to measure our steps  Stage when we decide how we will measure concepts within a study  Most importantly, how variables will be measured Indicators  A sign of the presence or absence of the variable we are studying  Example: attending religious services might be considered an indicator of religiosity Overcoming controversy A) Interchange ability of indicators  Despite there being different indicators for one concept, they should generally behave the same way if the concept is observed  I.E People disagreeing on all of the indicators that can denote the presence or absence of a concept can still agree in the mere presence of this concept Overcoming controversy cont B) Multiple indicators  Using various measures of the same concept on the same subjects, to ensure that when the concept is present, it is identified and properly classified  Advantages 1. A single indicator may misclassify an individual, while multiple will offset this effect 2. Broad indicators may only capture a part of the concept, while multiple indicators can capture finger distinctions of the concept present in the subject Concepts and measurements  Internal control, chance and powerful others (are all indicators)  These are dimensions of indicators ^ Indicators vs. Dimensions Things to keep in mind during the process of operationalization  Variable dimension  Range of variation   When measuring variation, the more specific the better  Measurement quality  precision ,accuracy, validity, reliability  Joint exhaustiveness and mutual exclusivity  every possible observation must be able to be classified, into an attribute of the variable  there should be an answer for every individual Mutual exclusivity  every observation, must be able to classify into one attribute  Level of measurements Precision and Accuracy;  Accuracy: how reflective is a mreasure of the actual attribute of a variable  Precision: finesse of distinctions made between attributes composing a variable  A more precise measurement is generally better  As long as a pre
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