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September 20 LECTURE NOTES

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Rania Salem

Lecture:  October 18 first assignment  Measurement is careful observations of the real world for the purpose of describing behaviours, attitudes, values, or opinions. o Terms and hypothesis o Researcher must do tests. Concepts to the concrete o Measurement can be divided into 3 classes, scientists measure:  Direct observables  Indirect observables  Constructs  are theoretical creations based on concepts, observe directly or indirectly  Concepts  a construct which we use as a summary device for bringing together observations and experiences that seem to have something in common  Conceptualizationthe process of formulating and clarifying a concept by specifying indicators that measure the absence or presence of the concept for the purpose of research. o Scientists share this as a body of knowledge amongst other scientists studying this  Broh (person)  constant pressure to improve academic performance. Students who do extracurricular will do better academically. She poses the hypothesis that extra circular increases social capital, which in turn enhances academic achievement. o Academic achievement = cognitive learning outcomes that are the products of school instruction o Extracurricular activities = school activities outside the set o courses offered at a school o Social capital = the ability to accrue benefits through membership in social networks.  The author says, Human capital – knowledge. Education. Social capital – number of people who you know or identify as good friends  Operationalization definition definition of specific research procedures that will result in empirical observations repre
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