October 18 first assignment
Measurement is careful observations of the real world for the purpose of describing behaviours,
attitudes, values, or opinions.
o Terms and hypothesis
o Researcher must do tests. Concepts to the concrete
o Measurement can be divided into 3 classes, scientists measure:
Constructs are theoretical creations based on concepts, observe directly or
Concepts a construct which we use as a summary device for bringing together observations
and experiences that seem to have something in common
Conceptualizationthe process of formulating and clarifying a concept by specifying indicators
that measure the absence or presence of the concept for the purpose of research.
o Scientists share this as a body of knowledge amongst other scientists studying this
Broh (person) constant pressure to improve academic performance. Students who do
extracurricular will do better academically. She poses the hypothesis that extra circular
increases social capital, which in turn enhances academic achievement.
o Academic achievement = cognitive learning outcomes that are the products of school
o Extracurricular activities = school activities outside the set o courses offered at a school
o Social capital = the ability to accrue benefits through membership in social networks.
The author says, Human capital – knowledge. Education. Social capital –
number of people who you know or identify as good friends
Operationalization definition definition of specific research procedures that will result in
empirical observations repre