What is the difference between performance and performativity?
o Judith Butler made up this word, that gender is like a
performance (but not fully) in the sense that you can
slightly perform your gender. There is an element to it
that is not deliberate and not entirely by choice. Not
really conscious of it.
Violence Against Aboriginal Women in Canada
Aboriginal women are 5 times more likely than other women
to die as a result of violence
At least 600 Aboriginal women have gone missing or been
murdered in the last 30 years in Canada
Both could be under-reported because race isn‟t always
recorded in police records
How do we make sense of violence against aboriginal women?
Linking patriarchal and colonial practices
Today‟s Lecture: Key Ideas
Gender is constituted through specific histories
Colonization as a patriarchal and racial project that shapes
notions of gender and race
Historical background: gender and race in Canada
Identify colonial ideologies, practices, and institutions that
shape gender (through race)
Argument that colonialism is ongoing
Gender: Interlocking Relations
This „interlocking‟ effect means that the systems of
oppression come into existence in and through one another so
that class exploitation could not be accomplished without
gender and racial hierarchies; imperialism could not function
without class exploitation, sexism, heterosexism, and so on -
Fellows and Razack
Colonialism as patriarchal and racial project
Notions of white femininity mobilized for women‟s
emancipstion participated in colonizing mission
o 1 wave of feminism.
Voting rights, but this ended up interiorizing
women of non-white backgrounds.
English women‟s views of Indian women
isn‟t weird because India was a colony of
Views England as less patriarchal, but it also
brings a racist view of India. The idea of the empire was central to first wave
feminism. Just because they were feminists
doesn‟t mean that they were above colonialist
The King and I
o How gender is defined by race. What it means to be
each gender is different for each race(?)
Feminist Aboriginal Scholars
o Thought that we needed to study colonialism and the
gender inequalities that followed.
o “Classical colonialism is distinguished by economic
exploitation, forced entry, and cultural imperialism
through the imposition of new institutions and ways of
o Looked at how colonial is gendered and patriarchal, how
the process of conquest involved the weakening of
aboriginal communities. They imposed patriarchal
ideals. Aboriginal communities weren‟t really patriarchal
at the time of colonialism. Women were allowed to own
land, participated in decision making, went fishing, and
o The ideas of Aboriginal women by colonialists
undermined their roles within their first-nations
o Europeans were shocked by Aboriginal women because
they weren‟t like the European ideals. Frail, unable to
do heavy work, have autonomy, sexual freedom, etc.
Aboriginals didn‟t frown upon having children
outside of marriage, they could get divorced, etc.
o In the beginning some French settlers formed
relationships with Aboriginal women. But eventually it
stopped because it was seen as a threat to colonization.
Why? Because women were central to the resistance
movement. Didn‟t want to give up their lifestyle, to be