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SOCB22H3 (47)

Lecture 4: Gender and Race as Interlocking Systems

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Vanina Sztainbok

What is the difference between performance and performativity?  Performativity o Judith Butler made up this word, that gender is like a performance (but not fully) in the sense that you can slightly perform your gender. There is an element to it that is not deliberate and not entirely by choice. Not really conscious of it. Violence Against Aboriginal Women in Canada  Aboriginal women are 5 times more likely than other women to die as a result of violence  At least 600 Aboriginal women have gone missing or been murdered in the last 30 years in Canada  Both could be under-reported because race isn‟t always recorded in police records How do we make sense of violence against aboriginal women?  Intersectional Framework  Linking patriarchal and colonial practices Today‟s Lecture: Key Ideas  Gender is constituted through specific histories  Colonization as a patriarchal and racial project that shapes notions of gender and race  Historical background: gender and race in Canada  Identify colonial ideologies, practices, and institutions that shape gender (through race)  Argument that colonialism is ongoing Gender: Interlocking Relations  This „interlocking‟ effect means that the systems of oppression come into existence in and through one another so that class exploitation could not be accomplished without gender and racial hierarchies; imperialism could not function without class exploitation, sexism, heterosexism, and so on - Fellows and Razack Linda Carty  Colonialism as patriarchal and racial project  Notions of white femininity mobilized for women‟s emancipstion participated in colonizing mission o 1 wave of feminism.  Voting rights, but this ended up interiorizing women of non-white backgrounds.  English women‟s views of Indian women isn‟t weird because India was a colony of England.  Views England as less patriarchal, but it also brings a racist view of India.  The idea of the empire was central to first wave feminism. Just because they were feminists doesn‟t mean that they were above colonialist views.  The King and I o How gender is defined by race. What it means to be each gender is different for each race(?) Feminist Aboriginal Scholars  Bonita Lawrence o Thought that we needed to study colonialism and the gender inequalities that followed.  Winona Stevenson o “Classical colonialism is distinguished by economic exploitation, forced entry, and cultural imperialism through the imposition of new institutions and ways of thought.” o Looked at how colonial is gendered and patriarchal, how the process of conquest involved the weakening of aboriginal communities. They imposed patriarchal ideals. Aboriginal communities weren‟t really patriarchal at the time of colonialism. Women were allowed to own land, participated in decision making, went fishing, and were respected. o The ideas of Aboriginal women by colonialists undermined their roles within their first-nations communities. o Europeans were shocked by Aboriginal women because they weren‟t like the European ideals. Frail, unable to do heavy work, have autonomy, sexual freedom, etc.  Aboriginals didn‟t frown upon having children outside of marriage, they could get divorced, etc. o In the beginning some French settlers formed relationships with Aboriginal women. But eventually it stopped because it was seen as a threat to colonization. Why? Because women were central to the resistance movement. Didn‟t want to give up their lifestyle, to be more patriarchal.  Andrea Smith  Patricia Monture  Sherene
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