SOCB22 – Lecture 8 (March 4)
Gender: Interlocking Relations
“This „interlocking‟ effect means that the systems of
oppression come into existence in and through one another so
that class exploitation could not be accomplished without
gender and racial hierarchies; imperialism could not function
without class exploitation, sexism, heterosexism, and so on.”
Intersectionality: women, race and nation
o Constructs womanhood are central to defining cultural
groups, races, and nations
o Meanings of femininity and masculinity are shaped in
relation to each other
o Not just that males typically dominate. There are
different types of femininities that are in a hierarchy.
o How one category gains meaning through another.
o “The „unfitness‟ of working-class Black mothers as
qualified to pass on national culture has been
constructed in opposition to the „fitness‟ of middle-class
White women.…Because Black women are „unfit‟
mothers they become „undeserving‟ of the benefits of
belonging to the American national family.” – Collins
An ideology played out in policies and practices.
Example: Depiction of black single mothers
in the media.
Can be seen in the lack of support and
childcare available to single parents.
o Dominant ideologies of femininity (and masculinity)
have impact on policies, actions, and structures.
o How if affects social policy.
Woman, Race, Class, and Nation
“In the United States, notions of motherhood influence
definitions of American national identity. Just as mothers are
important to family well-being, ideas about motherhood
remain central to constructing both the citizenship rights of
diverse groups of women and American social policy.” --
Mothers of the Nation – Patricia Hill Collins
o How are notions of ideal motherhood framed in terms of
who is seen as desirable to reproduce the nations? White middle-class seen as desirable. Families
with two parents. Have money.
Women of colour are less ideal.
o How are these notions based on race and class?
o Who is not consid