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SOCB26H3 (75)

Chapter2 education.docx

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Julian Tanner

Chapter2 Introduction: using theory to study schools -the most abstract theories r called “macro” theories. The approaches, “also as grand theories”, attempt to understand vast horizons across entire societies. The focus is at its widest, spanning centuries of time and large chunks of the geographic world. Etc a macro theorist would approach schooling by linking it to broad modernizing forces that have transformed the world, such as the rise of science over the past two centuries -middle range theories:more circumscribed, offering propositions that are geared to specific times and places, such as a particular nation in a particular time period. Etc y the Canadian higher education system greatly expanded in the immediate post second WW era. Middle range approach might examine more proximate causes -the least abstract are “micro-level” theories. It concerned w/ face to face interactions among ppl, which only a partial eye to broader social forces. Etc a teacher’s classroom management tactics and other attempts to wield authority and keep students under control Durkheim and Socialization: The Cultural Shift to Individualism -Rising individualism was the central -3 social responses to social cohesion: -1)Trust was precontractual, only when u trust some1 to not cheat you will you ever agree to abide by a contract. -2)trust comes from individuals interacting with one another. For each of us, our sense of self is assembled from the reactions of others -3)language is a mocrocosm of society, it’s a mutual understanding -Durkhein argued that “all education is a continuous effort to impose on the child ways of seeing, feeling and acting at which he/she would not have arrived spontaneously -By morality he understood 3 things: -1)morals had an imperative quality, stipulating how one should act “a system of rules of action that predetermine conduct”. -2)acting morally entailed some appreciation for the well being of others “to act in the light of a collective interest” -3)acting morally meant taking personal responsibility “have as clear and complete an awareness as possible of the reasons for our conduct” -socialization is a complex activity involving an important reciprocity between the individual and society, education was THE institution that could fulfill it -Schools were to teach students to be socially responsible, to internalize their obligation to the larger community -Durkheim was pushing new directions by stressing the centrality of science in education which church is the opposite -he recognized the salience of socialization in formal education and was clear abt its multiple objectives, emphasized both virtues and values(morality).Also the knowledge and competencies(the importance of teaching science, both its finding and methods) -Also he proposed an important view regarding the relations between individual and society (education’s role in the communal anchoring of social norms which is morality). -plus the education is more likely to reproduce society than to change it. Education plays fundamental role in promoting social orders, in giving stability to society -Durkheim was concerned abt education providing an equal opportunity for every1. Seeing education as a vehicle to foster the development of individual talents and capacities -Critics of Durkheim: -1) Conflict is missing, society appears as one big happy family where everyone agrees abt what is and is not moral. Power plays a more fundamental role in the social order than Durkheim allows, he implies that everyone in society provide equal weight with respect to social norms -2) Durkheim tended to point to the moral order, or society, as all-powerful. The fact is that ppl actively interpret social rules -3)His lectures on moral education understood that school first and foremost as socializing agent devoted to instilling in children society’s core values and virtues, in contrast, many of early education theorists arguing that schools should aim to develop ppl’s capacity to make the most of themselves -Durkheim promoted education as a social mechanism to promote social cohesion Marx: Industrial Capitalism, Class Inequality and The Spectre of Selection -any social analysis must be on the production and distribution of goods and services. An important aspect of industrialization was that it generates
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