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SOCB26H3 (75)

Socb26 -education.docx

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Julian Tanner

Socb26 lec 03 1/24/2012 9:03:00 AM Selection  In the past, selection was inherited but educational qualifications cannot be  Social status likely to be determined by education  Takes place within educational system(Schools) and between schools o Educational selection takes 2 forms:  1.) The edu. System is itself stratified-(pass exam go to uni, fail, go somewhere else, collegiate and vocational institutions)  2.) Streaming- selection process takes place within the schools themselves; the practice of sorting students in different ability groups.-upper stream(uni), and lower tier(vocational training)  Schools geared towards sending minority to university  Now students stream themselves through their choice in courses (advanced or enriched or general)  The “optional”(had no effect) and required courses lead students to stream one way or the other into post secondary education and particular workforce  Argument for streaming: allows students to prepare and also makes use of students’ talents and abilities, cultivates their skills  Critics: streaming is controversial, say regardless of different levels of ability, streaming has effect of widening differences  Also, placing kids in non-academic programs suppresses their ambition.  Real problem is who gets in what stream- higher proportion of students in higher background go to university vs. lower background.  Study on streaming grade 10 students:  Two groups identified: 1. Those whose gr.10 course selection was likely to restrict their post secondary education (pse) options- ruling out uni. In particular. 2. Those whose gr.10 course selections kept their PSE options open –especially uni.  Streaming occurs most often in math and least in English.  Girls have slight greater PSE options than boys  Students from university educated families significantly more likely to have open PSE options lec04 1/24/2012 9:03:00 AM What are the educational effects of streaming?  Streaming has an effect, independent of social background and cognitive ability, on school attainment.  Gamoron: over time, students allocated to high status streams improve performance, and those in low status streams, lower performance. Why does streaming have the effects that it appears to have?  Those in academic stream surrounded by dynamic peers, curriculum, and teachers.  Research shows that students in low status streams are harmed more by the streaming process than students in the high status streams benefit from. The changing nature of selection in educational systems  Historically , Canada’s educational system has been more flexible and open in its selective function than European educational systems.  Distinction between sponsored and contest mobility in educational systems.  Over the past several decades, European educational systems that have become more like Canadian and American systems (for example: more secondary school graduates going on to university)  Increasingly the selective function of education is occurring at the post secondary level, rather than in high school  Higher education is stratified according to: o Selectivity of the institution universities can be ranked according to prestige ,and those with the strongest reputations and prestige are in the best position to select the best students who upon graduation will assume the top positions in society. o Field of study (that is, the programs of study that students enter.) 1/24/2012 9:03:00 AM Research paper: use any citation method except MLA. Include page numbers. Comparison between us and U.S  Prestige hierarchy (pecking order)- are in both, but in U.S- various different public/private universities, ivy leagues, liberal arts colleges, etc.  very large, very hierarchal university system. Canada compared to this- very few large universities, the smaller ones irrelevant because no one has heard of them. The U.S university system is very much public. In Canada, resources are distributed equally among the different schools (u of t may get more because of vast number of students but won’t get more just because of prestige) , in U.S- very elitist  In Canada, they mostly recruit locally(get jobs locally). U.S elite universities locate nationally and Internationally. – get jobs more internationally. Might teacher expectations influence student attainment?  Pygmalion in the Classroom: a study of elementary students and their teachers by Rosenthal and Jacobson  Title comes from play from Niagara on the lake about a relationship between professor of English and a lowly born girl- eliza dolittle, wanting to turn her into a duchess or highborn lady by improving speech and having her assume the mannerisms, and achievements and styles of a highborn lady. Turned into a play-my fair lady.  A teacher’s expectations of a student affects students’ performances. If they expect a lot from students- a lot will be produced but if you expect little then, little will be produced.  Study suggests that falsely labeling students as having high IQs , changes teachers’ expectations of their abilities, improving their test scores over the course of the academic year.  Very influential but controversial not only because of ethics involved but also because other researchers had difficulty replicating these findings. Roy Rist: Social Class and Teacher expectations  SES characteristics of kids determine their placements in ability groups in kindergarten class.  Kids in different groups treated differently by the teacher  Over the course of the school year performance gap between the three groups widened. (less ability kids grouped in back of class room, average in the middle, best closest to the teacher)  Once assigned to ability groups, little mobility between them. This extends into grade 1 and 2  Noticed that kids closest to the teacher wore cleaner clothes, behaved better and were lighter skinned.- shade of skin affected teacher’s perception of kids. Those in the back were most scruffy and unclean, demonstrated poor oral skills, and were more likely to come from single parent families or families relying on welfare. Kids in the front actually received more instruction  In relation to streaming, Rist found that once they were assigned to groups there was little to no mobility through the entire kindergarten year. lec07 1/24/2012 9:03:00 AM Educational Inequality Among Students  Has equality of opportunity been achieved in schools?  Does social background (class, gender, and race/ethnicity) matter for educational success?  Considerable and consistent evidence that educational attainment is linked to parental SES (social class)  As a result of the expansion of educational system what we find, is that regardless of social background, many more students are leaving schools with qualifications and high educational attainment than before.- more students are finishing high school, more going to university and less dropping out.  Despite the expansion of the school system, there is still a link between SES and educational attainment.  if your dad is high school graduate, your chances of completing school increases.  Functionalists argue that over time, prospects for opportunity will be increasing, in other words, if we track people over time, we would find that the influence of father’s education on your own prospects of getting university degree would diminish. How might persistent class effects on educational attainment be explained?  - IQ/Measured ability?See article: examined life o (but students from high status backgrounds do better in school even when IQ and measured ability are taken into account)  Financial Hardships? o (but students from high status background do better in school regardless of the costs of education) o interest free, osap, etc, even though these educational stings are removed,  Cultural Explanations o Annette Larieu “the hidden advantages of class”- middle class parents more comfortable with school than working class ones. o Working class students do less well in school because they are opposed to education Why the Concern about Drop-outs?  1.) Personal Costs (unemployment, low wage jobs)  2.) Economic Fractured transitions from school to work: revisiting the dropout problem- 168 high school dropouts in Edmonton interviewed  Key questions: why did kids drop out of school?  What happens to them afterwards? (employment, unemployment and crime) lec08 1/24/2012 9:03:00 AM How oppositional are high school dropouts?  While school factors are important determinants of dropping out, most dropouts have mixed feelings about quitting school.  Most intend returning to school  Few abandoned their occupational (and educational) aspirations- few anticipated, expected, or wanted, low status jobs.  Most quit school because they oppose the educational system  Aboriginal highest dropout rate and least to go to university.  Research in 1980s surprisingly suggest that they were less oppositional to education system than expected.  Reasons for dropout: conflicts between or with one or both parents, divorce, problems at home, pregnancy, mostly reasons dropping out are because of school-i.e. learning difficulties, lousy grades, particular dislike for teachers or school subject- rejection of schooling because of lack of connection they see in learning a subject and the real world.  Some students didn’t regard themselves as dropouts and wasn’t by choice but instead were forced/pushed out of school through lectures by teachers and counselors.  Contrary to the belief that dropping out is completely voluntary on students’ behalf, it can be said that there are elements of compulsion in the decision.  Found themselves being discriminated in work force- with low status jobs.  When surveyed if want to go back to school 38% (most) stated yes but not high school- implies that they didn’t like being treated by teachers as children. Gender and Educational Attainment  Female educational attainment now significantly exceeds male educational attainment  Why? o Women entering occupations for the first time they never previously entered. Traditionally female occupations now must have higher qualifications. Thirdly- women not only catching up but exceeding male attainment. Men are more likely to go into occupations not requiring degree than women. o People with the largest amount of income are the people requiring the most educational qualifications. o One of the reasons why women continuously earn less than men despite the qualifications women get relates to the subject they study in university. o Despite women’s educational attainment exceeds male attainment, there is still a disadvantage for women Race and Ethnicity and Educational Attainment  Significant variations in educational attainment between racial and ethnic groups.  Overall visible minority students perform better than white students (30% with university degrees, compared with 24%)  However, within the visible minority group, there are significant variations in attainment.  Asian students: high attainment (40% with university degrees) why they do better? Partly because of changing immigration policies – instead of recruiting Europeans.  Black and Hispanic students: medium educational attainment  Aboriginal youth the least- 6.2%  Socioeconomic background of immigrants
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