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Week 7 Lecture

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Dan Silver

1) Recap a) Theses b) Jewish Question 2) Capital a) Mystification b) Commodities c) Exploitation Midterm (around 70 marks): Quote – identify who the author is (about 5-10) Definitions of concepts (e.g. use-value=exchange value) Short Answer (make comparisons between authors) Essay (choose from two) Theses -shift from theology to anthropology -theology = logos of theos -logos = understand structure/meaning of something -theos = God -theology = logic/structure/meaning of God, who God is, what God wants, what God does -thinking theology – draw conclusions about human beings based on conclusions about God -anthropology = reverse things about logic/structure/meaning of mankind, who is man, what humans want, what humans think, what humans need; and draw conclusions about God -God provides wholeness to humans -if humans have rich interiors, you would think God produced rich resources -God is dependent on conclusions about mankind -Marx says it doesn’t go far enough because it stops with generic claims and psychological tendencies -Feuerbach thinks people suffer from psychological alienation and rejects God -Marx: the way social structures make us work in labour -theology is called superstructure, which traces structure to base -economics of production determine individual attitudes and psychological -Marx says anthropology then shifts to sociology based on idealism and materialism -materialism = material conditions through which we reproduce our lives -idealism means our culture, ideologies are independent variables that drive the dependent variables -interpreting vs. change -if we interpret our ideas, we understand the history of the world -if materials are primary, so thinking/ideology is meaningless, so must change it -if believe in idealism and theology, need to interpret ideas -interpreting is not enough, must change the world Jewish Question: -1) Bower’s position: for religious minority (Jewish) to gain political rights, they would need to give up religious identity, and everybody has to do the same…no more anybody without religious identity -secular activity for equal citizens: collectively decide our future -political rights require dropping religious identity -2) Marx’s response: in US, there is secular state in which all citizens participate, but outside of politics, everybody is very religious, thus secular state does not mean civil sphere -non-political state, there are non-religious activists -Marx is anti-religion -Marx does not think religious identity gains political rights; political equality would not help -3) look more broader emancipation, there’s property, wealth, gender, ethnicity -we might gather as citizens and exercise our political rights as citizens and drop everything else -political rights do not equal civil property…need to participate in votes -need to treat each other as equal human beings Capital -Marx spent most of his mature years working on his great work (1867) -a “must” reading for everybody -demystification – tries to debunk things; i.e. tear off the halo -body of Christ – suffer from illusion -German were philosophical people (philosophy/religion) -French were political -English were economic -sphere of philosophy/religion = treat Jesus as historical person -pope and church looked like wizard of oz -church is secular institution created by human beings -sphere of politics = took away mystery around political -economics – no mystery, no metaphors, no rationalization, all plain and clear; just trade and barter -philosophy/religion are more mysterious because so straight forward, clothes are ordinary clothing -contrast of economics and politics, we are so deeply immersed
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