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University of Toronto Scarborough

Page 1 of 19thSeptember 12SOCB42 LEC 1Why theory o Intellectual power o Increased sophisticationo Conceptual tools Why sociologists have classics o Moral outlookso Lasting conceptso Propositions CLASSIC SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY MEANS o CLASSICVery first rankLast long timeGenerativeWorld definingo SOCIOLOGICALSociety o THEORYTheoretical statements Abstracts vs Empirical General vs particular Contemplative vs Practical Perspectives on modern societyo Commerce o Industry o Democracyo Science o ComplexitythSeptember 19 SOCB42 LEC 2 Adam Smitho Born in 1733 Scotland o Upper middle class familyo Studied moral philosophyo Went from Glasgow University to oxford and only lasted a few years thereo He had a mental nervous breakdowno Went back and started hanging out in the intellectual circleso Lectures given in Latin that was the only important language of that timeo Adam smith was the only one who started teaching in Englishthat was very distinctive of him He lectured in the language and the way of every day life so people understood him even more o Theory of moral sentencehis first major booko It was in international bestseller hito It is a general account of all moral forces that influence on how people behaveo That book made him famous due to which he didnt teach o But he started tutoring a really RICH mans sono He saw the world during this time because he also would travel with this kidPage 2 of 19 Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations o What does it mean to be rich o How does a country be rich o 2 alternatives Natural resources pg2 Stored treasurecash SMITH rejects both these theories for him GNPcapita was what defines being rich for a country Wealth is primarily depended on those conditions that help humans social organization o Understanding those social conditions that enhance human labour powero Understanding how we organize and interact with peopleo What are the causes of wealth o Exports are good and imports are bado Division of labour pg1 DOL o HOW TO MAKE A COUNTRY RICHProductivity of labour Proportion of population employed in productive labouro Why do some countries not institute policies that favour productive labour o For smith a big historical factor manufacturing and commerce vs Agriculturetheories that were present in different countries at that time CAUSES OF WEALTHDivision of LabourDOL o What is itSpecialization People do specific jobs that they are good ato What are its formsSeparation of employmentmore people having more specialized jobs eg docs lawyers etcSeparation of taskswithin a specific category there are different tasks given to different people eg doc officesecretary nurse etco Why increase productivityImproves dexterity skillspg 14 and 15 Time savings Technological innovation Workers Machine makers Scientistso ConsequencesSurplus value Increased commerce Increased connectivity pg19the end product is the outcome of the efforts of many people who worked together o CausesNatural propensity to truck barter and trade Rooted in reasonspeech Capacity to reason
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