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Dan Silver

November 7, 2013 SOCB42 Week 8 Democracy and Modernity  a new way of life, started out in Europe and was spreading all around the world: they named this Modernity(modern society)  two major perspectives: o Smith: What it means to be modern commercial society  they new key is emergence of industries, exchange, division of labor, money  to understand how money operates, and when this changes what other things changes? family, law, etc o Marx: production and profit  capitalism as motor of production, private property  key features: profit, exploitation, alienation  tries to understand how this transforms other sides of society (family, religion, etc) o BOTH  understand how we can place into this modern society  Smith: modern society into feudal society how we are in the way to this  Marx: through capitalism Tocqueville  born in France 1805, he was an aristocrat, came from oldest noble families in France  modern society is the end of the old world rather than an exciting new world  pre modern society allowed for people to cultivate better some parts of themselves (honor, glory )  he was different because he didn’t think it was possible to stop the modernity, it would be foolish to try o he thought he should find the good sides rather than the bad  he went to America, where he thought he could see this form emerge (democracy)  he thought he could see the future of the world there  he thought that he and other Europeans should treat it as a laboratory to see what happens and see how change occurs HIS IDEAS Democracy as a Way of Life  you don’t just study presidents and formal law  he thought that its not about economic productivity  equality of conditions- people are more and more similar to one another and that there are fewer rank differences o some people are born superior to other, and their children will be o someone to the higher rank will be looked up to  1. alternative- what aristocratic society was (pg.304) o aristocratic authority 1. heredity  passed down the family, gives you authority no matter if you are smart, stupid, coward ,w.e, etc 2. powers exercised by force  not by persuasion, no equality 3. Land  People who run the society and have authority its because they own land. not because they are the strongest, smartest but the things they own  What new sources gained authority in society ? Origins of influence leading to democracy!! 1. Clergy a. church b. has Christian ideology- all people can be saved and anybody can become a priest c. route for people who came from normal families to be sitting next to noble people 2. Civil law a. need lawyers b. being noble doesn’t guarantee, you need some professional knowledge c. therefore regular people would become lawyers and be personal to noble people 3. Commerce a. king and nobles would waste much money at wars b. regular people outside of nobility they would gain wealth and therefore they would gain influence 4. Enlightenment a. literature, arts, sciences b. emergence of museums, galleries c. learning societies emerged- clubs, salons, they came together to exchange knowledge  kings could use these people as allies, everything is pushing its way towards democracy  why are these things happening ?! HISTORICAL CAUSES OF DEMOCRACY (T) 1. crusades a. thought it was a good idea to go to Palestine and take over i. many of them died 2. townships a. rise of town , cities as they grew stronger became more interested in democracy 3. firearms a. the way warfare and power, the ability to use violence, the most you can use if force but this changed things (before: horses and armor) b. the invention of firearms took the major way of power away from the aristocracy that could kill people.. equilibrium on the battle field 4. printing press a. it would we very very expensive before this innovation, you would have to be very rich b. anybody could read anything, this produced equality (big part of enlightenment) 5. mail a. before the mail only aristocrats would be able to know what is going on in the world, average people had no idea what is going on b. the mail expanded understanding of the world and the ideas to act upo in 6. Protestantism a. martin luther, religious reforms against religious (reformation) b. change the relationship between god and self (only way to get to god is though priests) c. all human beings have their own relation to god not though a priest i. luther translated from Latin to German so everyone could understand it 7. America a. the idea that there is this place out there, no matter how bad your life is you could make it on your own( a chance) b. the reality, people could leave, not necessarily stuck, you can go and do things on your own  T thinks there is no way anyone can control it, he thinks we need new ideas to understand this thing  idea that there are challenges in democracy: Dangers in Democracy  CHALLENGES OF DEMOCRACY (good things in aristocratic order that democracy need to weaken) 1. Nobles kept central power in check a. not able to directly control peoples lives, into peoples towns, houses b. the king couldn’t do it, and your dukes could support you c. destroys the nobles, it’s the central state! 2. Kings divinity a. king thought that they were placed in power by god, they didn’t have to go to elections etc. b. this idea placed check on their idea to abuse power c. ch
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