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Dan Silver

SOCB42H3– ClassicalSociologicalTheoryI MASTERING THEORY Leads to: 1. Intellectual Power 2. Sophistication: complexity of thought – understand consequences of small changes in life 3. Conceptual tools WHAT IS CLASSICAL SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY - Classic = first rank, best, great accomplishments that others want to copy and that we want to preserve for others, they last for a long time, generative meaning that every time you come back to them you learn something new, books that you can read every year of our life, world defining meaning that they define a certain way of feeling, being loyal, disloyal, etc./teaching us what these mean - The sciences do not have classics but instead have exemplars but their books can’t be read and implemented today o Shakespeare vs. Newton - Some believe that classical sociological theory does not exist - Theory = means to look at something, to step back from day to day course of events and think about what is happening from a distance, theories are abstract instead of empirical, obtain rational understanding, general rather than particular, contemplative rather than practical - Sociology = socio + logical o Logical comes from Greek word logos o Socio comes from the Latin root of company/togetherness o Essentially understanding the logic of togetherness, group life o Concerned with why groups stay together, what are different types of groups and ways of interacting, what are problems that arise in groups - Classic Sociological Theory o The longest lasting understanding of why groups stay together PERSPECTIVES ON MODERN SOCIETY - The writers we will study fed many of the background ideas of sociological theory o discovered sociology as it could be studied - These writers looked at society and believed that there was order to social life - They looked at the old ways (religion) and believed that they were incompatible with modern world - Commerce, Industry, Democracy and science o Exploded and advanced during the period that these authors lived - Social interactions changed dramatically o Originally you have small village/town where you knew everyone and where your products were made and who made it - More and more people’s lives were defined by impersonal connections - Question arose: How does that relate to people and how does that effect how we fight and educate ourselves - Major transformations = explosion of industrial growth - These changes animated Karl Marx - Signified a major change In how humans relate to nature o Factory is symbol of how we can bend nature o If nature isn’t doing what you want, just change it, harness it to your will - All these changes resulted in changes in how we relate to each other and to ourselves - Tocqueville looked at changes in political landscape and asked how we could have a leader that was equal to everyone else - There was explosion in the number of people that became scientists or worked in the sciences and this related to a decline in people involved in organized religion - Through the human mind we can unlock the secrets of human nature - If we understand how society we can understand how it works better - Compte thought the sociologists would run society because they understood it the best - How does change from religion to science influence society Lecture2 ADAM SMITH - Scottish - Middle class family - Was part of the Scottish Enlightenment - Went to England at Oxford University - At 28 he became a professor of philosophy - Intellectual lectures were usually given in Latin but Smith chose to give his lectures in English - Wealth of Nations became one of the touchstones to understanding economics AGENDA OF WEALTH OF NATIONS - Actual title = An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations - His first question is: What is the nature of wealth? - What does it mean to be rich? o Having a lot of money/stored treasure o Natural resources (Pg. 2) o Gross National Product (GNP) per capita - The richest country is the country that best gratifies its citizens: with less work more people can have the best things in life - Wealth, being rich primarily depends on how a country organizes the productive process of work o Doesn’t depends on wealth or natural resources but rather a social product - How do we organize society so that people are as productive as possible (explains why this book is thought to be a classic sociological book) - If you do not have natural resources but believe it is the basis of wealth you will take it via conquest - If you want to become richer believing money is the basis of wealth you invest in the theory of mercantilism believing that exporting is good and importing is bad - Believers in GNP spend their resources on making those in their country more productive - Second ques: What are the causes of wealth? - How do you become rich? o There are universal conditions if applied will increase national productivity  Making people’s work more productive: change social conditions so same people can produce more in less time with less energy mainly through division of labour  Increase the work force: shift unproductive people into work o Historical: Not every country does it the same way or implements these universal questions  Agriculture vs manufacturing  Essential according to Smith to develop agriculture before manufacturing and commerce  Theories: the theories that guide decision makers influence whether countries are able to get rich - Book is concerned with how nation as a whole becomes rich - Patrimonialism: purpose of politics is to enrich leaders - Smith envisioned a different form of political thought where the purpose of politics was to enrich nations DIVISION OF LABOUR - Increases human productivity - What is the DOL? (Pg. 10-11) o Specializing work o I.e. Pin making and t-shirts - What are its forms? o Smith addresses two major forms: the separation of employment and the separation of tasks o Separation of employment is dividing into different types if employment i.e. teachers, doctors, lawyers o Separation of tasks is dividing a job into various tasks - Why does it increase productivity? o Does appear to increase productivity but why? o There are 3 major reasons:  Improves people’s dexterity (Pg. 14-15): improved skill, if you specialize in one specific thing you can get really good at what you are doing  Time saving (Pg. 15): save time by staying on one task rather than switching between various tasks  Technological innovation: workers themselves develop more useful tools to try to do that task better, machine makers think about and study ways to improve their machines, because of DOL there are people who think all the time so scientists examine ways to combine various theories that often leads to scientific and technological breakthroughs - What are its consequences? o There are 3 main consequences:  Surplus value: you can produce much more than you need for yourself so you have extra which you can use to trade for things that you need  Increased commerce: without this surplus value is useless  Increased connectivity: everything we have is becoming more interconnected with everyone else, through commerce we are connected to everyone else (pg. 19-20) o How does this process leave even the average worker with everything they need o Collaboration between a large number of workers o Sociological question: How can all the societal connectedness produce something as simple as a t-shirt with no formal planning - What are its causes? Why does it occur in the first place? (pg. 22) o The natural propensity to truck, barter and trade  Propensity: humans have natural tendency towards trade  How do you get from propensity to trade to division of labour? o Connected to humans capacity to reason/talk to each other o Many ways to get others to do what you want, but trade is uniquely human; getting into perspective of another (pg. 23) o It generates impersonal markets: ways of getting things that don’t depend on personal favour but base trade on each other’s self-interest o Markets + self-interest = specialization o Leads to a society that coordinates talents and activities which further causes DOL o Coordination is directed at each to each other and is connected and useful - What are its limits? o The extent of the market, how big the market is, how many people there are to buy the products o Size of market limits how much DOL develops CAPITAL ACCUMULATION - Increasing the percentage of people engaged in productive work - Capital = subset of stock, stuff you do not have to consume but can use to get needed materials - Stock = all the stuff that you have - General correlation between DOL and more capital - Cannot begin specializing until you have stockpile of capital - More capital leads to more productive labour: a greater share of the population is doing productive labour - Productive labour is anything that adds value to anything that it is working on and adds tangible value while unproductive labour does not (pg. 423) - Unproductive labour = menial services such as cooks, philosophers, church people, military, the king - Capital generates useful employment – takes 8 out of 10 ears of corn and plant it to create more capital - Leads to more replacing of capital which is more productive - What causes people to continue to accumulate capital instead of finishing their capital? o SAVING o People start saving, rather than having a banquet they reinvest o Human propensity to better one’s condition is why people save their capital (pg. 436) o Everyone wants to improve themselves by getting rich Lecture3 Propensity to trade – markets – DOL – Skilled labour = national wealth – commercial society Propensity to better condition – save – capital accumulation - % productive workers - Smith takes natural propensities to demonstrate new ideas via full realization of the human potential - Human beings have the propensity to trade, thus develop markets, then specialize (DOL) as a result developing skilled labor leading to national wealth and thus a commercial society - Humans have the propensity to better their conditions thus they save to accumulate capital thus increasing the percentage of productive workers leading to national wealth and thus a commercial society - Smith is not only describing the changes but rather trying to persuade people - Smith was trying to change how people thought of work – not as something to try to get out of but rather an essential aspect of life (433) - Smith relates lavish living to stealing from churchQQes o Trying to make sociological theory as well as culture COMMERCIAL SOCIETY Money - Nature of living in a commercial society is that everyone becomes merchants - If you cannot exchange you cannot live or survive in a commercial society - You cannot exchange without something that is counted as money - Why does money exist? o Money = some commodity that everyone will accept in exchange for goods, services and products - Limits of barter = try to trade what you have for what you need - Double contingency of wants = if barter is going to work, two people must want things reciprocally - Once we have something that everyone will accept the number people with which you can trade explodes - In principle anything can be money i.e. cows, salt - Qualities of good forms of money: o Durable/lasts o Divisible - Introduction of money into society had profound consequences on use value and exchange value - Barter was about actual use of items and their usefulness - Exchange value = usefulness in trade - Use value = usefulness for yourself - Water has low exchange value but high usefulness - Paper money has high exchange value but low usefulness - This distinction leads to the idea that the things that we have and the relationships take on a split life o Have a lot of things you don’t really want or like o Is friendship because of use value or exchange value o At school learning to get job (exchange or use value) - Raises question of why we are doing things (how can we put society together so that we are productive but don’t question its value) Markets - Source of regulation in a commercial society - Natural price = cost of bringing something to the market to sell o Rent o Wages o Profits for owner - Market price = price at which you sell it at - Market and natural price do not need to be the same. If not it creates a force that influences people to change their behavior and influences people to change their behavior - Smith attempted to find order in the chaos of markets and social life particularly through the Law of Supply, Law of Demand o About relationship between what people do and prices, people behave in different ways when prices differ o Law of Supply = there’s a direct relationship between the price of a good and the amount of it that will be offered for sale – the higher the price, the more willing people are to sell things o Law of Demand = there is an inverse relationship between a price of a good and the amount of it that buyers are willing to purchase – the higher the price the less of it people will be willing to buy - The price change effects what people are willing to do o i.e. Turkey sale in Toronto vs. Buffalo o activity is being regulated because of the price - These effects however only work this when certain principles are in place o Liberty of motion = you must be able to move freely o Freedom to change jobs = if there’s a law reducing number of farmers, prices will stay high o Need to have good information = where you can sell you products to make a profit needs to be accurate - Forces that prevent market price from deviating from natural price o When you conceal high profits: if I know you can sell turkeys cheaply and I don’t tell others, price will stay high o Trade secrets: if you don’t tell anyone then prices will stay high o Scarcity: if there’s only one turkey farm we will never meet demand o Monopolies: if there’s only one company that sells at a high price no other company will be able to create competition o Certifications - Market is supposed to allocate our resources and skills towards things we actually want o If market gets too high in one area, all talented people go towards that specific area i.e. 50% Harvard grads going into finance before Financial Collapse - The market model in a few simple principles can explain a lot of human activity o Why do have some people have more than others? o What creates conflict? DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH Original State - Wages, rent and profit is three major ways in which wealth is distributed - Original state = Imaginary thought process of before there is rent, wages or profit o Before anyone starts working for anyone for a wage o Everything you produce is yours o Original human condition is without private property (192-93) - Smith emphasizes that people are naturally the same but division of labor separates people - Division of labour = if they are able to easier divide labour they will become richer and more productive Inequality - Natural tendency of things is towards inequality - One of the basic division in commercial societies is landlords - Capitalists = people who get revenue from owning capital Share of produce Rent Profit Origin of wages Capital Original source Private property accumulation Selling labour Class Landlords Owners Workers - What are interests of workers and owners in regards of wages o Workers want higher wages o Owners want lower wages - It is not, however, difficult to foresee which of the two parties must, upon all ordinary occasions, have the advantage in the dispute, and force the other into a compliance with their terms. The masters, being fewer in number, can combine much more easily; and the law, besides, authorizes, or at least does not prohibit their combinations, while it prohibits those of the workmen. We have no acts of parliament against combining to lower the price of work; but many against combining to raise it. In all such disputes the masters can hold out much longer. A landlord, a farmer, a master manufacturer, a merchant, though they did not employ a single workman, could generally live a year or two upon the stocks which they have already acquired. Many workmen could not subsist a week, few could subsist a month, and scarce any a year without employment. In the long run the workman may be as necessary to his master as his master is to him; but the necessity is not so immediate. - Owners have systematic advantage over workers and thus will usually fulfill their interests o Owners can outlast workers and thus more likely to win in a conflict o Owners easily combine, not so many owners, deal with each other regularly (95) o Workers combine with great difficulty because they have to work all the time, much harder for them to get together to better their situation, people associate worker’s meetings with bad situations because they generally meet when there is a bad situation o This advantage results in owners having the lowest minimum wage which is how much people need to survive on a day to day basis unless regulated o When society is prosperous wages rise because a growing economy means more money, services, etc. i.e. Alberta’s Oil Sands - Wages of labour is determined less by absolute level rather than growth of economy o Workers do better when economy is growing o Owners do better when economy is stagnant - We need to side with labour over capital if we want a growing economy - Smith thinks it’s better if workers have higher earnings o Equity (10) – no society cannot be a flourishing society if most of the population is poor o Growth – increases prosperity and wages o Increase average person’s industriousness – when more people can earn a higher wage they work harder to ensuring it - Inequality among workers due to differences in wages - According to market logic everyone should go into areas that pay more but this is not always the case due to natural and policy inequalities Natural inequality - Agreeableness – how hard is it to get people to do the job - Education – creates unequal pay, education makes you into a more productive worker - Constancy – work that is irregular people get paid higher i.e. movie industry - Trust – if job requires a lot of trust from somebody you want to attract people who are trustworthy - Probability of success – in some industries with low probability of success wages are very unequal i.e. singers in NYC or LA - Inequalities are rooted in the nature of the work being done - What makes wages more equal? - Long established trades – differentially high wages will come down o Tech industry: high paying when first came out, wages now lower - Normal condition – people just move into whatever pays better, take whatever steps to move into best paying jobs o Moving from CDs to IPOD manufacturing - Not having hobbies o Hobbies create inequality in wages o People who dance for fun brings down wages for professional dancers Policy/Artificial Inequality - Restricting competition: restrictive licencing makes higher wages - Free education: priesthood, you get a free easy education but the wages are artificially low - Mobility restrictions also create inequalities because if there are rules saying you cannot switch from CDs to IPods it will create inequality in wages Social Conflict Share of produce Rent Profit Origin of wages Original source Private property Capital accumulation Selling labour Class Landlords Owners Workers Increasing wealth and Interest productivity across Higher profits Higher wages society Align with good Yes No Yes Recognize interest No Yes No - Landlords tend to believe their interests are with owners even though it isn’t because they have thought of it Lecture4 HISTORICAL CAUSES OF WEALTH 1. Fall of Rome 2. Warlord Land grab 3. Hurts agriculture 4. Town rises 5. Foreign trade rises 6. Manufacturing develops 7. Barons Weaken 8. Agriculture develops 9. Modern Commercial Society NATURAL PROGRESS OF OPULENCE - Political economy = role of government in stimulating government - Natural progress of opulence is from agriculture to manufacturing to commerce or in other words from farmers to manufacturers then merchant o Can also say from country to cities to internationally - Subsistence first - Moral claims (483) - Life in countryside where you are own master that is human nature and attractive to everybody where you are in charge of your own life - Smith claims that everybody would rather be a farmer - That implies for development that everybody would want to be a farmer and no one would want to manufacturer unless all farming land is filled - There is a country to city dynamic: development of city is dependent on countryside - Countryside is where all the food gets grown - When there is an agricultural surplus then they have something to sell to people working in the towns - They are then able to produce supplies to help farmers but it is dependent on how productive the farmers are - Development of town is dependent on productivity of farmers - When there is a surplus of materials and tools the town is able to trade with other cities around them but is dependent on other areas - It took 1000 years before Europe began to develop but it went backwards to what Adam Smith believed o Things began at an international trade and then moved to manufacturing and finally throughout the countryside Feudalism - 575 AD defeated by German barbarians - Many could read, write and were literate and were accomplished architects - Developed roads that connected cities and encouraged trade - When they fell this all fell apart, no one knew how to do anything, literacy plummeted, etc. - Warlords acquired vast amounts of land which they began to rule - In highly dangerous situation, land was not something there for economic development it was there for defense and power as well as protection from other warlords - Point was to keep land in family so it was not broken up because it would become weaker although it was not economically productive - These warlords became barons and are origin of European aristocracy - Dukes, barons, earls were petty princes within their respective fiefdoms o Basically kings/gods in area o Could decide who could get married, if you were a peasant they could decide disputes, inheritance - People were highly dependent on lord in personal way thus creating a highly hierarchical society (patronage/clientelist society) - Lord gives peasants protection - You can live on property and farm and lord will not kill you or let others kill you - If lord goes to war, it is peasants duty to join lord in a relationship based on trust, loyalty and allegiance - Along with peasants there is knights, power of baron is built on military power - Above the barons are lords whom the barons have to pay a monthly tax - Above the lords is the king who protects everybody - This structure developed from the warlord land grab and is a powerful social structure that is enforced in a personal face to face manner that united all of Europe - Through these personal relationships there is coordination across thousands of miles - Number one consequence of the King system is that it hurts agriculture o The barons and lords were encouraged to be warriors and to have such a personality  Care about glory, honor and their reputation  If they are not fighting, the last thing they want to do is book keeping and they feast  Where the people who rule believe that growth is pointless will not stimulate economic growth o Peasants hardly produced much and were very unproductive  Worked to produce payments for lord and their survival so they did not work any harder than they had to  Obligations included fighting, fixing roads and bridges - No one chose to change society when it was based on kings and lords - There was an unintentional revolution/instability within the society - The peasants have a built in conflict to of the entire system because they reap the least rewards - Smith was interested in the competition between the king and the aristocracy o When Kings want to go to war, they have to convince lords and barons to convince peasants o Kings are always trying to encroach on lords and barons authority by trying to get direct power over the peasants - Structure of society changed with cities - After the fall of Rome, manufacturing, trade and commerce all stopped - Power was concentrated in castles and countryside - Kings thought they could enlist peasants to fight the barons and lords - Kings said in exchange for loyalty and force, they would give land ownership and independence to entire towns o Everyone was equal within these towns - Weak kings were more likely to make deals with cities i.e. English kings - On the other hand French cities had stronger kings - Irony is areas with weak kings developed democratic societies first - Towns rise and look around the countryside to trade and only sees barons and lords who want to kill them - As a result they decide to trade with foreign cities, long rage foreign trade consisted of spices, silks and were highly valuable at trading posts - Now there was fine luxury goods appearing in the towns - Towns began to start to learn how to produce some of these foreign luxury goods - As foreign trade developed they has an extended market and were thus capable to sell to more people - They had incentive to become more productive and soon merchants became landowners - Merchants became rich and began to buy land but were not warrior so their personality as different o They kept books and focused on productivity - When towns were unproductive, barons had nothing to spend their money on and spent their money on feasts to buy allegiance - The warlord wants a reputation for a lavish spender, because the towns had jewellery and silks and the barons purchased them and focused their wealth on material wealth - The knights left and the support system collapsed leaving the barons weakened - Before knights got everything from one baron but with development of cities this destroyed this dependency - Barons for power gave land to peasants who then began to cultivate land much more productively - Eventually sees the disappearance of barons and results in towns trading with each other (529) - Dialectical argument = in trying to do one thing, it resulted in the opposite occurring - Commercial society = network of relationships organized by the market where no one is entirely dependent on a single person Mercantilism - Basic principles of mercantilism: o Wealth = money: more cash you have the more richer you are o Leads you to fetishize money: sole goal is to have more money (leads you to want to increase gold reserves even if it does not increase productivity) o Exports are good while imports are considered to be bad - Smith believes mercantilism is doomed to fail because there has to be strict regulation of all goods coming in and out of a country - Mercantilism uses country’s resources in a sub optimal way: favors producers over consumers o i.e. American car companies: limited importation of foreign cars, American cars were bad and expensive (573) - When Japanese cars were allowed in the States, people spent less on cars and had more to spend on other products and businesses - His answer to these restrictions was free trade by bringing down trade barriers GOVERNMENTS - System of natural liberty: o Everybody should be free to pursue their own interests in life as long as they do not harm anyone else in a just and civil way - Three duties of government o Defense: Army, navy o Administrate justice: court system o Public works and institutions: public schools and churches Defense Hunting Herding (sheep) Farming Commercial Who fights Everybody Everybody Men only Professional soldiers Small amount – Government $$ $0 $0 greater than $0 HIGHEST Militia/Army N/A N/A Militia Army - Herders can support a much larger society than hunter gatherers - During war we need to continue working on farm thus farmers leave women, children stay back to work on farms - Main expense of training will be undertaken by farmer who has many of the tools - In commercial societies, production takes place throughout the year constantly - In order for there to be people to fight, they need to be paid - Division of labor is very important in commercial societies and thus we have specialized soldiers - Government must pay considerably for army personnel - As division of labour develops, military technology improves (canons, machine guns, etc.) - On one hand commercial society is very decentralized system, dispersed authority but produces greatest and most centralized army and defense Administration of Justice Hunting Herding (sheep) Commercial Administering law Source of Authority Age/Excellence Wealth/Property impartially Inequality Low High & Personal High & Impersonal Government $$ Low Negative Tax funded - Source of authority = who decides disputes - In hunter gatherer society there is low equality there is not much property and not much source of authority because there is not much to fight over - The elder decides disputes or someone known for their intelligence - There is high inequality in herding societies because what chief says is ultimate and source of authority is now wealth and property - Court system was source of revenue because you had to pay to receive justice - Commercial society depends on trust and knowing where goods are coming from Lecture5 SMITH’S VIEW OF EDUCATION - The best way to organize education is a free market of education o Hire teacher based on what you want to learn o Teachers should be there to serve students - In feudal society, school was administered by the Church - No need for priests to teach students things that were relevant to them but rather about the Church - People were learning about heaven and the world to come - The morality that they learned, was not about living a best life on earth but about how to get to heaven - Smith believed that was horrible in terms of teaching young men how to care of their families - Priests were paid by endowments from universities and thus did not care if they actually taught their students anything - For Smith the best system was the ancient systems in Ancient Greece/Rome o Find experts in fields you want to learn and paid them to teach you if they were good teacher o Ethics – learn to be good citizen o Rhetoric – how to give good speeches o Gymnastics – how to be strong o Was all about living in the world, practical knowledge - Smith believes that rich should pay for their own education but does not believe that poorer people should Ancient Medieval Commercial Physics Ontology (nature of Reading Topics Ethics being) Writing Music Pneumatology Geometry Gymnastics (characteristics of Spirit) Engineering Athletics Publically funded Payment Fee Endowment education for common people Purpose Citizenship, courage, To train priests Correct problems created humane by the division of labour - DOL creates the following problems o Makes you stupid (987) : forget to use mind, a simplified job/path simplifies your mind o Encourages a decline in public spirit because a lazy mind cannot reach beyond itself – the farmer used to having to connect ideas and concepts and in connection with those around you o Makes you into a coward: regularity of predictability, that’s how you can do the same thing over and over again while courage means you can respond to unpredictable events o Makes you weak in your body: you only learn to exert your body in that one specific activity - If these problems were left unattended they would continue unregulated, thus the government must intervene - Commercial societies are free societies, people are required to figure out for themselves what they want to do with their lives - For that to work, it requires people to be courageous, freedom requires courage (993) o A cowardly society can easily be conquered or self-destruct - Freedom requires intelligence o Educated people tend to have more self-respect as they are less dependent on ideas of others o Since educated people can exercise their own judgement they are more likely to see through half-truths and lies projected by fanatics SMITH’S VIEW OF RELIGION - Began thinking of religion with his friend David Hume - Key question: Should there be an official government religion? - Smith is in favor of non-established religion - Hume was in favor of government established religion because otherwise religious people could recruit o If there was a state religion then priests would get lazy and not convert those around them creating political stability - Smith argues that the origins of established religion effects its influence - Usually there is a violent conflict and through this process one of the factions recruits a religious faction to create a God’s war - Whichever faction wins will owes the religious group and they must make that religion the official religion and everyone must follow the religion - Social dangers become high due to multiple authorities: priests, princes, etc. - As a sovereign you become highly dependent on what the Church says - If priests are teaching something it is the law of the land - No way to adjudicate between the different authorities - How to weaken and establish religion o Commercial society would weaken religion in the same way barons weakened o Priests were very much like barons o As religion became established, the priests looked decadent rather that simple and pure - Non-Established religion o Energy will be high as there is no religion endorsed by the government so people are constantly recruiting o (1001) social danger would be low because people must maintain religiosity o No way one religious group will be able to dominate without lack of army o Massive movements of people from countryside to city: now in big city with misery, this is situation that is prime for fanaticism and religious cults o 2 main things to combat this: Education and Cultural policy (1005) - Smith was one of the first people to think of cultural policy o One of the reasons people felt this way about cities was because it was boring o With vibrant culture, city would not be so depressing that they would endorse religious cults or the like Established Non-Established Origins Political Faction Impartial rulers Energy Low High Interest of religion Absolute Authority Purity, morality and converting Social Danger High – multiple authorities Low but urbanization is and issue KarlMarx Life - Born in 1818 - Just a few years after French revolution where they proved that natural government could be toppled in a span of a few weeks - Lived at a time of social and intellectual ferment - His family was Jewish, family of rabbis, father was not religious and taught him secular teachings such as Poetry and Philosophy - Did well in school and moved to Berlin where he fell into radical people - Hegel was one of the first people to argue that conceptions of roles is socially constructed - Got a job at a newspaper and wrote about terrible working conditions in Russia and was thus expelled from Germany - Marx moved to Paris and met many intellectuals particularly Fredric Engels, son of a capitalist business man, gave insight into factories - It was Engels money that supported Marx throughout most of his life - Was later expelled from Paris and moved to Belgium - Marx’s central idea = class rules the world o Trace everything everybody does is defined by their class (worker vs. owner) - 1848 = series of revolutions that swept across Europe, people thought of dreams of radical intellectuals but all of the revolutions failed - Marx went to London where he stayed for most of the rest of his life working at the British National Museum o Very poor but did not look for any job o Continuously read Adam Smith - Three of his children died from malnutrition - Communist International in England lasted until 1871 when they took over Paris and were killed in a bloodbath - Died in 1883 IDEOLOGY - It is not ideas, beliefs or values that make the world go around but rather material life, factory floor that depends you beliefs and values - Our philosophical ideas cover up the material ideas - Religion: You have nothing now but wait for the next life – Owners - Marx wanted to prove that religion was expression of class interests - Feuerbach, author who influences Marx, argues that God is a human projection and what is real is human beings, we create Gods to help serve our needs o We create God as a projection of a perfect love o We also live in a very hostile world, we create Gods to give us comfort in this difficult world o Gods are very powerful so now we have to care about this God and we become afraid of them - Feuerbach managed to shift his thinking from theology to anthropology - Theo = God. Logos = Logic o Knowledge of God - Once you understand what God wants, you can understand what He wants - You start from understanding God and whatever that tells you, you understand what to do - Anthropos = human being - First tried to understand human are and what they need in order to understand God - Marx agreed with Feuerbach but didn’t think that he went far enough while Marx thought you needed to go from Anthropology to Sociology - If we’re going to explain religion through alienation of human beings we have to have explanation for where alienation comes from - Marx says alienation comes from social construct, what is the social structure that we are living in that is creating alienation? - Marx goal was to always get to the sub structure - Idealism to Materialism - Idealism = ideas drive actions, other things such as family, religion, etc. will affect how we organize these aspects of our life - Materialism = work influences our ideas and what we do - If you are thinking in idealistic way, if you want to change world, you must change their ideas - (145) Philosophers have only interpreted the world not changed them - We know now that it is the material life that matters, and most people think they’re doing things based on their ideas - You have it get people to see through their own ideas to see that they want to change the world CRITIQUE - Root meaning from Greek is to judge - A critical theorist uses tools of conceptual analysis to examine world, criticizing world - An external critique according to Marx will not work but rather an imminent critique is needed, internal critique - He wants society to become its own critic so that in order to live with themselves they must change - Your own ideas commit you to the ideas of equality but you do not commit them – Marlin Luther King - You have to start from what people believe and go from there - You have to get people to confess from within themselves - Imminent social critic is like a psychoanalyst = work with them over time for them to admit it to themselves, may take a while but is possible EXAMPLE: IDEOLOGY CRITIQUE - Jewish Question: Brower Critique o Argument: Political rights related to peoples religion identity – major question in Germany at the time o Must renounce religion in order to be citizen of state - Marx says that cannot be the whole picture because you wave not looked at political vs. civil society - Instead looks at the United States where citizens are at center of society but does not depend on religion - As soon as we step outside of political society things are different o Men can get certain jobs while women cannot o Only Christians are allowed to work in certain areas - Getting citizenship is not enough to get equality, pretends we are all equal by giving us all the right to vote i.e. civil rights movement - Does not highlight how to change this situation Lecture6 ALIENATION - Marx’s basic themes is being in tension with yourself - Original state: what you produce when you work belongs to you. - Some people only can sell their own labour, spend day working on things over which you have no right - Alien = other - Alienation = feeling other than yourself, being stranger to self - What are societal conditions and working conditions that creates alienation? - What are the elements of our humanity that get corrupted with capitalist view of work - 3 types of labour: o Objectification: before you build something you have an idea and you build it to reflect idea. Objectified, that idea. o Material: transforming object into real thing o Self-transformation: our needs, we have transformed the world around us allowing for transfer of ideas - Forms of alienation: o From productive activity, instead of spending day expressing humanity, you are turned into machine. o Often become quite alienated because of alienation from the product, no ownership over fruits of labour, no expression of self  Instead of having fruits of labour being expressions of self, it is instead what we consume o Alienated from fellow workers, we work together as a collective group to produce, people who work in a capitalist society are pitted against one another in competition, no collaboration  Division of labour makes everything disconnected o Alienated from human potential  Work should be place where we express our humanity but instead we have our life sucked out of us  What could be you is pre-scripted for you and alienation from laughter, friendship - As long as you have people working for wages and selling their time with no claim to it, you have alienation MYSTIFICATION - Marx wants to demystify the world - Likes to debunk things - Always trying to bring down to size religious ideals which he believes are rooted in human ideals such as power - Came under assault/demystified: 1. Philosophical/religious – questioning idea of theology, independent reality of God, Compte said mind creates own God, Pope/Church started to look like Wizard of Oz th 2. Political – wake of French revolution, Louis 14 was the greatest king, when he was beheaded the sacred aura around politics was debunked 3. Economic – world Smith addressed, Marx believed realm of economics was the most mystified that we did not even notice that it contained mystified elements a. We first have to acknowledge that economics is in fact mystified, must first notice the demons WHAT ARE THE MYSTERIES OF CAPITAL? Commodities - The truth of commodities is that they are based upon exploitation - The only way a capitalist society functions is by stealing by their workers, a necessity - What is the nature of the mysteriousness of a commodity? Non-physical: transcendal (302) - A commodity satisfies one want or another - You can look and see the expensiveness of something based on how you perceive it - Similar to looking at crown and sceptre and believing that there was divine - Marx believed this thought was delusional - Use value vs. trade value: all properties of objects you can use - Object outside of us that fulfills wants/needs - A piece of bread has certain qualities - Properties that create use value of object are its real qualities, no mystery in use value - But according to Marx, commodities have no physical properties whatsoever o Nourishing quality of bread is not what makes the bread a commodity, you cannot perceive commodity value of an object o Eating corn is waste of time o Cannot see, smell, hear the worth of an commodity - The exchange value is non-physical/supernatural - Transcendent =going beyond - We become subservient to things we own - If we are saying that the value of objects comes their value as a commodity, there has to be a third thing determining their value Congealed Labour - The exchange value of a commodity comes from crystals of homogenous labour - Exchange value of clothes, in each step of production - For every single object, how much time it took to produce - Labour theory of value - Idea of condensed labor is very strange/inconceivable - It is the invisible crystals of labour that everybody is trying to get as much of it as they can so that thy get something else - Marx compares capitalist to the monk = both living in supernatural world, denying self from using anything, buoyed towards things of other world (324) - In order to value commodity, we have to count labour on a singular scale - There however is so many types of work i.e. professor, scientist - When absorbed in idea of abstract labour, everything becomes erased - The general formula of commodity exchanged = Commodity – Money – Commodity o You start with corn, feet cold o Trade corn for money then money for shoes - Capitalist formula = m – C – M o I have $100 o Trade money for corn o Trade corm for more money o **No natural break point in satisfying need - The creation of surplus value does not happen through free trading but must leave life of marketplace and go to factory (336) - Marx is doing something very important in terms of philosophy: Allegory of the cave by Pluto - According to Marx, you must go from light to darkness to understand the world - How surplus value gets created: (355) 25 kg of cotton 1 spindle 1 day labour $25 $25 $50 $100 2 hr 4hr 4hr 8 hr - takes 4hrs for the worker to reproduce each day but there’ s no rule that they can only work 4 hrs - Capitalism in is essential form - Alienation and exploitation is ingrained in the system Lecture7 MIDTERM - 3 sections - Big, important ideas will be the focus 1. Identifications a. 5 quotations from authors we have read and we will have to say who is the author of said quotation 2. Definitions (Choice of 3 of 5) a. 4 concepts, some from Smith, some from Marx b. Do you say what it means? c. Illustrate with an example of some kind d. Why is the concept important/significant/matters 3. Short Essa
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