LECTURE 7 June 23, 2010 MEAD
- OBJECTIFICATION: human ability to see ones self as an object, seeing how other might have seen you is seeing
your self as an object. G.HERBERT MEAD
- Early societies: “unreflective universality” – no division of labour, all members participate in all aspects of
community irectly, but they do not reason about it.
- Division of labour IN CAPITALISM has lead to a “particularity” )a fragment and selfish self-consciousness) and
unhappiness. People do not understand their place in society or the general social goals.
- Second element is capitalist market – it is based on competition, each and every one is pushed to think of your
own interest, it wont occur to you other wise, but if your challenged you wont tell the competitor any aid, you
think of your individual interest, particular interest, not general interest of the company it would be better to hire
the competitor, but you want them to hire you so its individual, particular
- *FINAL (WILL BE ON THE EXAM)- The master/slave relationship – FOR HEGEL, existence of slavery makes not only
slaves, but masters un happy, slaves are unhappy for obvious reasons (theyre exploited economically, no controle
over their own destiny as everyone cherishes that right, they are denied all freedoms and are therefore unhappy,
how ever according to hegel, masters aren’t really doing any better; [ACCORDING TO HEGEL ANYONE EVER LIVED
HAS THE YEARNING TO DEVELOP THE COMPLETE SELF(rationally think all); they do not work as hard and have
leisure to engage in philosophy; the respect they get from slaves is not really worth much because its enforces,
they want to be respected for their own qualities, reason, capability for self reflection, courage, virtue etc.; they
are awaye slaves don’t respect for all these reasons but show them obidience only because they have to.
Therefore masters do not value the obedience of their slaves, its not satisfying, so that is why according to hegel
SLAVERY makes not only slaves but masters unhappy. Since every one wants to feel unity.
- A reasonable and just society must overcome particularity, because humans have an innate need for immediacy.
This will be a society of “reflective universality” people will be more satisfied, they will be aware of hteir place in
society, they will know how their own activity contributes to general social goal, and that sense of belonging and
connection to every body else in society will no longer be un developed and automatic as it was in early societies,
it will be reflective.
- Fragment is because most people aren’t aware of their position in society, no one thinks about it, when you apply
for a job, you think of the money, will it be able to help you function in society; you never think of the importance
of your job, how they contribute to society, what is their role in society, what they do for society, no you don’t
think about al that.
- IF CIVIL STATE AND CAPITALISM IS FORCING PEOPLE TO BE PARTICULAR AND CONSIDER their own individual
selfish interest, how do you ever achieve he state of reflective universality, work towards the good of society as a
whole; Hegel’s answer is CIVIL SOCIETY cant do that, but the state can facilitate towards it.
- He thinks ideally develop societies can only be developed together. Individual and communal conscious can only
be developed together, individuals become free and aware of the full knowledge of their place in society and their
potential at the same time the society becomes just by the use of reason.
- Social development removed unjust.since bourgeois society is a site of universal egoism, the state must be the site
- It’s the state who should change if it’s the one causing the individual particularism
- It was to be universalistic as opposed to particularistic.
- Hegel wants universalism –application of same criteria to everybody
- UNIVERSALISM ALTRUISM - Understanding f the citizens universal duties and responsibility – in this society, under
the influence of the state, people will be acting altruistically, its better than egoism, particular altruism is thinking
of your group before your own benefit.(family is a site of particular altruism, thinking of benefits of others first,
the number of the people is limited. EX CHILDREN, ETHNIC GROUPS, RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL GROUPS ETC.)
- HEGEL THOUGHT strong state and strong bureaucracy are necessary to counter individual egoisms. During the last
few years there has been a revival of this idea, much of financial and economic crisis were in was caused by
economic activity, because they were allowed to pursue their interests aggressively without considering their
actions’ harm on other people.
- It can be compared to the max Weber on bureaucracy. (his opinion was similar to HEGEL, he also stresses
universalism bureaucracy, stress same for everybody.) you cant understand how revolutionary the universalism of bureaucracy was when it was first introduced if you do not compare it to the system of brantic offices and govt.
administration prevalent at the time.
- According to both the god thing about bureacucracy, but hegel didn’t see weber did is that universalism of
bureacucracy can be taken so far that it makes it inhuman.
- IRON CAGE of bureaucracy – pushing universalism so far defeats the purpose of bureaucracy which is to help
citizens. You cant help a citizen because you want every one to flow the same rules. So it works against it purpose
(which is help the citizens).
- HEGEL: important eleme