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SOCB43H3 (166)
Dan Silver (151)
Lecture 4

Week 4 Lecture

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Dan Silver

-Weber divided world into economics and politics -salvation is incredible social force -inspired people to leave families and traditions in families -taken down political organizations -radically reshaped the world RELIGION + THE WORLD -religion came from the South -deep values in society ART 1. anti-magic -magic = certain objects are supposed to have certain power and create spiritual spirits -salvation religion tries to get magic away -against art because against magic 2. meaning vs. form -religions is about believing -the substance/form you need to be -salvation religions against art because of substance/form 3. art for arts sake -artists would be employed by churches to paint or make songs -can do independently for its own sake -people who did art started to feel art itself could provide real significance to people’s lives -set up art as a rival to religion -salvation religion tends to be methodical/restrictive -art is more mediate, constrictive -to religious people, art is lax EROTICISM -Weber: there is a deep tension between ethic of salvation religion (spiritual brotherhood) and erotic sexuality -lot of religion make sex central to religion -sex is part of rhythms of life and is organic thing to do in life -sex becomes eroticism = idea that a person can have a sex life that is important/significant/romantic 1. rationalism – life is supposed to be rational, methodically organized -rationalism not most important thing in life 2. personal -people value sexual relationships with other people, it often creates one to one bond with another person -according to brotherhood religions, not supposed to be connected to sexual religion, supposed to be connected to God -supposed to have salvation religion (supposed to be safe) 3. incommunicable -experiences that happen in having sexual relationship are thought to be incommunicable (cannot communicate to others) -brotherhood religion – nothing should be distinctive between those two people RATIONALIZATION -is Weber’s obsession; he sees what modern society means -this is happening everywhere 1. science - most important sphere o there’s something distinctive happening in West in which people’s way of life became more towards nature (e.g. China, Egypt) o but don’t organize Gods o wasn’t founded in mathematics or proofs o don’t see experiments, laboratory, special institutions outside West 2. art o people have been attentive to music, but don’t see rationalization of sound, musical notation 3. universities – don’t find them in history o organization is new social change that allows people to harness their knowledge, i.e. have department of social science, geography… 4. bureaucracy o having that specialized sphere where people work in offices and are civil servants are not pleasant, is developed in West o way in which bureaucratic spheres is about power 5. constitutions o people organize state based on constitutions, rational principles (be ministers rather than normal people), rational expertise 6. capitalism o people not trying to be greedy, but calculate how much you spend/make 1. formally free labour (wage labour with a contract), accurate calculation of labour costs 2. home-work – not relatively rare, having a home here and workplace somewhere else and thinking of them as separate places 3. accounting – modern accounting practices, bookkeeper keeping track of how much you made 7. legal system o did not have legal system to support it, will make it very calculable of what happens and know where to stand/invest o fixed legal code BUREAUCRACY -Weber thought of this as form of authority in our society, how people are ruled, a way of ruling, orders tells us what to do/what not to do by following the rules -FORM of bureaucracy: 1. jurisdictional areas – people assigned to certain tasks to serve certain function, to organize people  have a leader and have small group of people gathering around leader  tasks organized according to hierarchy 2. hierarchy  hierarchal organization = lined bureaucracy  e.g. collegial organization (have colleagues) 3. files  power of bureaucracy is having the files (written documents)  because bureaucracy operate by rules, supposed to be written down somewhere so that person working at later time can look at the same rules 4. office management  keeping everything in office organized 5. full-time jobs  if you’re going to work for it, it’s supposed to take all of your energy  working all the time from 9-5 6. rules  bureaucracy run by people having to follow rules  if you do something for one person, have to do it for everyone 7. appointment  you depend on your superior in your organization  if you have person getting elected, they owe stuff to people who elected him  bureaucracy: if told by superior, do it even if you disagree with it  if elected official, if you think something is not right, you don’t do it -SOCIAL IMPACT of bureaucracy: 1. versus democracy  tension and alignment between democracy and bureaucracy  democracy = social system that values equality, equal say  bureaucracy = against the notion that there will be experts  involve people with specialized expertise  generate a whole bunch of inequalities  elected leaders are powerless against bureaucracy (not let bureaucrats win)  creates inequality and hard to get rid of elected officials  they’re v
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