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SOCB44H3 (40)
Lecture 2

Week 2 Lecture

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCB44H3
Professor
John Hannigan
Semester
Fall

Description
-urbanization = shift in proportion of population (cities vs. rural) -describes a process by which rural areas are transformed into urban areas that involves increase in 1) population and 2) population density -city population density is high -exception: some areas of world have relatively high population density but are still rural -urbanism = social patterns and behaviours associated with living in cities -city brings crime, lack of friendliness, hard/cold people, is large and personal -characteristics depend on where you live/reside -American Harlem = traditionally a low-income area, long standing cultural tradition, associated with high crime rate, drug culture, centre of ethno-cultural piece in America, strong history of churches, gone downhill economically; upper-middle class from Manhattan, NY are starting to move into Harlem due to wonderful buildings/housing History -there was once no city around -humans lived on planet for about 100,000 years, but cities existed for about 5.000 years only -hard to pinpoint the earliest city, perhaps in 8,000 BCE -Jericho – best population around 600 people -cities took so long because lack of agricultural (food) surplus; not able to produce enough food so that everyone does not have to spend their day in food production -before cities could emerge, must have breakthrough of dramatic improvements of agriculture, called agricultural revolution -people began being nomadic, then hunters and gatherers -ability to maintain own livestock (sheep, pigs, cattle) -development of tools that allow you to dig, weed, and turn wheat into bread -extra food (surplus) allowed people to engage in commerce/trading, pottery, and trade extra food for objects (
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