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Week 7 Lecture

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Hannigan

The Polish Peasant in Europe and America William I Thomas – better known researcher; was a symbolic interactionist -best known for: if people believe something was true, then it was true for its consequences -reality is socially defined/shaped -e.g. if left-handed people are believed to be really smart, then people will treat them that way Florian Znaniecki – was a Polish American sociologist -looked at immigrants who came to Chicago and settled in centre of Chicago (seen as newcomers) -studied social disorganization = a decrease in the influence of existing social rules of behaviour upon individual members of the group -disorganization came from family, religion, life from rural community -younger generation – social fabrics tend to tear apart (e.g. crime, juvenile, family break-up, divorce) -studied why this happens due to influence of city -many statistics found from court records -rebuild stronger citizenship and organization Murder -murder rate is going up in Peel region, but is stable in Toronto because things are in control -Chicago in early 20’s and 30’s, contrast between situation back home and in city -murders were rare; usually because of jealousy -people started to engage in violence and murders in Chicago -pawn man -guys drinking heavily and sleeping until noon lead to violence and murder Sexual immorality on girls -girls were under control of parents -strict control of premarital sex -girls were expected to go home after school and do housework -lack of parental supervision of teenage girls in rural Poland and Chicago -peer influence of bad friends lead to deviance and crime Social disorganization -makes people become murderers, rapists, etc. -killed life record of immigrants -book: The Gold Coast and the Slum written by Harvey Zorbaugh -did a study right in centre of Chicago, called Loop -was a number of neighbourhoods right next to one another -gold coast was elite area situated right on lake where wealthy people in big mansions -slum was an area of Italian settlement, much working-class; one was a bohemian area where people wanted to become artists -also an area called Skid Row, which refers to concentration of area in downtown cities where hobos/panhandlers/homeless lived -these areas are natural areas, where they are bunch of little planets circulating -people living in mansions had no contact with skid rows or slums or bohemian area -if these natural areas existed apart from one another, what gave city a sense of commonality and community? – social glue that held society together -the elite had more social consciousness; get more involved in charities and programs -what makes us proud Torontonians? – sports teams Human Ecology -second part of social disorganization involves human ecology -often used with environmental science -ecology started as particular approach within field of biology -up until 1920’s, biology favoured an approach which described evolution; emphasized how plants and animals evolved -ecological perspective: emphasized system of interdependence (everything in nature is connected with one another; e.g. when one part of nature is altered/destroyed, others are affected) -if we kill species of plants (rainforests) or animals, will change ecology of local and global areas -notion of food chain – modern day environmental movement focus on effect of using herbicides/pesticides -as insects carrying pesticides move up into food chain, effect gets larger -notion of competition within nature – constant competition for food/resources for different species -invasion-succession = when one species invades the area of another species -human biology may provide a good model, humans are not much different from plants/animals -notion of community (plant and animal communities) -ecosystem = environmental integration of plants and animals Park-Burgess Concentric Zone Model of Urban Growth -city doesn’t grow normally, grows in systematic fashion -model follows principles of human ecology -conceived by Robert Park and senior colleague Ernest Burgess -starting point for human ecology -based on city of Chicago, suggested it was applicable to other cities -recognized that concentric zone model was cut because of lake Michigan -this incorporates principles of ecology – competition, segregation, invasion-succession -segregation = people clustered together (e.g. poverty not spread around city but concentrated) -sense of model of immigration and ethnicity and change in communities -implicit assumption that immigrants will start poor and work their way up to middle-class -immigrants lived in rooming houses and poor houses in downtown, second and third generation able to pull themselves to become middle-class and move out to suburbs -applied well to European groups: German, Irish, Poland -some were not able to work their way up due to racism -idea is that there will be a ripple effect and spread outwards -zone 1 = central business district (CBD); where cities begin to develop (one central nucleus) -area where major commerce, hotels, entertainment are located -all growth is spread from the centre core -people used to travel by rail-line, streetcars -forces out economic activities into second area, called zone in transition -zone 2 consisted of marginal businesses = busine
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