Secularization: religious institutions used to control education. Religion monopolized
education. Education is critical secondary education of socialization
Mass-education: relatively wealthy countries.
Education: 300 years ago, most were literate
100 years ago: majority never attended school
1950: 10% of the world’s countries had system of compulsory mass education
Does education lead to equality or inequality? – Watson and prick (DNA guys) decoded
DNA, (double helix name of book) took place in universities and led to the creation of
genetic companies. The economy also influences education.
See slide 6
Functionalism approach to education-see slide 7
Education is competitive
The functional approach St simon
Conflict Perspectives: stress economic behaviours prevent people from getting an
education. Many jobs require academic credentials.
They say people who don’t have cultural capital are placed at a disadvantage.
The conflict people argue that they are unfair because it promotes inequality. This
comes from Karl Marx and neo-Marxist.
Education because of unequal preparation=unequal access (social inequality)
See Slide 9
Education attainment: number of years of schooling
Education is function(makes a contribution to social survival, stability etc)
In tradition societies, (non-literate societies tribal) information, knowledge is
transmitted by the family and tribe. As societies become more scientific and
Knowledge society thesis* ->know it
The family can’t provide you with the information you need to operate in this kind of
Specialized education institutions properly socialize people for adult roles in modern
Primary school: Reading, Righting, and Rhythmatic (literacy, and numeracy)
Secondary school focuses on primary education. More academic education.
It is specialized in a practical education.
The formal curriculum. Many people overlook the informal curriculum(hidden
Hidden curriculum is implicit, latent and transmits cultural values, beliefs, and norms.
Schools encourage good behaviour and discourage bad behaviour.
Schools teach sociability. They teach discipline and punctuality. Schools also teach
motivation, long-range planning, hard work. You need to be future oriented and
achievement oriented. Schools teach that some people are better suited to better topics than others. Everyone
is treated alike. There is no ascription. Everything is based on performance or
Deferred Graphication: people learn to “defer” (put off)
Schools try to stimulate intellectual inquiry. Schools and education stimulate critical
thinking which leads to critical ideas.
When you go to community college everything is straightforward. A specific skill with a
Faculties in universities where everyone teaches, but also researching.
There is no creativity in natural, and social sciences without education.
Education changes and transforms you.
Gellner mass education was based on modern nationalism. SEE SLIDE 11.
Education is important to forge and brings people, unifies people, into a functioning
hole. Social solidarity. The whole operates more socially because of socialization.
Societies like the old Soviet Union, ethnic diversity under communism. They used
schools to establish a unified national identity. They tried to overcome ethnic
differences. They tried to integrate under uniformity “socialist man”. They used the
educational system to forge a single national identity.
When the Soviet Union collapsed the ethnic thing came out of the box.
The belting republics, Estonia, Lithuania all sued for independence.
In Canada people don’t integrate by uniformity, but by standing for diversity (multi-
Ancestral homeland is associated with a specific geographical area.
Canada integrates around diversity and multiculturalism; there is still considerable
uniformity in the Canadian educational experience. You must learn English. Everyone
must learn the three R’s. People have to learn specific job related skills. People must
lean the values of being a citizen. All people are exposed to the value of tolerance and
acceptance of differences.
Various ethnic groups can maintain identity
Education gives people social standing
Cultural capitalSEE SLIDE 12
Not everyone has cultural capital because it is scarce and valuable.
Pedagogic Violencepunishments intended to discourage any deviation from the
Education helps people pursue academic status, education is functional because it helps
people achieve these things. Prepares people for educational roles. It develops people’s
Education helps people fund what they are good at.
Universities evaluate people based on their achievement. The most gifted and
successful are directed to graduate schools and professional schools
Education is the most significant way of achieving upward mobility.
Earnings by education
Education makes a significant contribution to social standing Unintended functional consequences of education. Child care, education provides poor
child care when both parents work
Particularly important for single parent families where they have to work.
Educational systems provide a controlled environment for teenagers. The students can
be watched and mentored.
Teenage males have high rates of crime, mostly physiological, and biological. The frontal
lobes of the brain inhi