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crimes and deviance.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Hannigan

crimes and deviance ( C and D) 3/15/2012 4:11:00 PM Crimes against ego  Aka: personal crime Crimes against person, aka  Physical attack  assaults Two types of assaults  No real good cause: o Have the right to defend yourselves , ubt government are weak o Highlited by theory that  Ppl try to defend themselves, but got arrested  Convenience store owner : David Chan—charged by deterring /detaining/locking up a shoplifter  In common law: equality  Applies when the law turns out to be foolish  When you are victim of geneal assault, you can defend youselve  But don’t dfend too strong, cause may get charged  If you live in Texas, then how fiercely, no problem  In fact, The law requires that When you go out in public, you must carry a fire-arm ( pack a piece)  Mugging rate is zero, hence  aggravated assault o Your damage is unprovoked  Murder  ( first degree murder)  When you plan it ! it’s first degree murder  The prosecution is able to prove that you ‘ve plan it ahead  Secondary murder  You kill the person, but didn’t plan it out ahead of time  Such as spousal violence  Not pre-meditated  Manslaughter  Someone dies cause of your negligence  Sexual assault  Molesting, not serious as rape  Theory of Crime and deviance -start with biology theory and then sociology theory biologiy theory Cesare Lomboroso  criminality is inherited o an Italian ( Cesare Lombroso)—is the first criminologist o wrote ‘crime, its causes and remedies’ in 1911 o he trust that criminality is inborn –the ‘bad seed’ as metaphor o atavism type  from evolutionary theory  what distinguish human from animal is the hum has highly evolved moralistic sense –this is true  some criminal types are not fully evolved  haven’t evolved this moral character that we normal ppl possess—this is called ‘atavism type’  some ppl have atavistic types,-they haven’t developed human morality, and hence they are criminal  so criminals are pre-human o degeneracy  a criminal is a degenerate  aka, morally insane –refer to nature o proof he offers  this biological claim  he said: it’s impossible to physically identify criminals o criminals possess stigmata  red hair , receding hairline ( baldness) , shifty eyes  he just took a guess of the above  lacks empirical support  he compare a crimi with non-criminal sampel on stigmata  random sample to make an ‘matched sample’  compare them on hair colour…  this is overthrown by Charles goring o the English Convict in 1913 o tested the hypothesis: by comaring the matched samples  find no diffence  so this dispose ―Lomboroso’’’s guess on stigmata of criminals o they are ego-centric, they are psychopath , sociopath  lack empathy ( read someone else)  feel no sense of guilty of killing ppl  objectify their victims ( no treting them as human being)  William Sheldon  Interested in inborn criminalis –simlar to Lombroso  Varieties of Human physicque 1940  Three body types o Endomorph  soft round body build and a high proportion of fat tissue o ectomorph  Tall, thin, non athletic o Mesomorph  Mascular, agile, athletic  More likely among criminals  ‘Gluecks’ ( a couple) : Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck  Physique and delinquency 1956  Replicate Sheldon ‘s work  Compare 500 delinquent with 500 non-delienquncy o Results confirmed Sheldon  They find more mesomorphs in the D than in the non-D  Can we explain this away? o 2 types of explaination  biological  criminality comes from inside ppl  genetic make up  socioligial interpretation  comes outside ppl  social forces –we are surrounded by society, so social forces interact with body types  thus produce delinquency  muscular guy chosen to be gang leader  outlaw bikers—the leaders of the motorcyclist  based on muscularity  this has to do with ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’  the big guy is more likely to be arrested  it’s not nature, but social forces selecting musclular indi to become leaders, and hence more easily to be convicted  sociological theory –social forces  motivation theory o SF drive ppl to commite D and C o Ex: learning theory  Comes from Sutherland’s motivational theory  Learning theory  Aka differential association theory  He also
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