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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Hannigan

Lecture 3 – Sept24: Medieval and Industrial cities - P36-38: summary of early cities - For a very long time, people only talked about European urban cities but it is worth considering that the rest of the world had urban cities - Our book talks about India – Indus Region about 2500 BCE (before common era) - Moenjo-Daro had functioning sanitary system and sit-down toilets in 2500 BCE - China is different because the temples and things are separated from the general population (unlike the other cities where they were the center of the city) - Max Weber: cities in the East had no independent political identity (as compare to the West) oIn other words, dominant forces of control CONTINUED to dominate oIn sociological terms, cities in the East never developed stratification system or municipal governments/institutions and so on - Starting in the 5 century, a period of decline in urban cities began starting with fall of Rome oMost people believe the Barbarians (Germans) defeated the roman army oBut that belief isn‟t necessarily true because Barbarians weren‟t anti-urban oThe decline had more to do with the rise of Islamic Empire and the stopped trades and society went back to the feudal system oOf course arts and culture died as well - Feudal system: subsistence (find enough to survive) agriculture, no surplus of supplies o3 levels of stratification: king, nobles, servants/peasants oPeasants weren‟t allowed to own land and belonged to the nobles oThere was no secular law oCatholic church also had quite a big influence, 1. Canon law: only legal code by Catholic church 2. Canon law states it is a sin to lend and borrow money
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