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SOCB44H3 (40)


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John Hannigan

Lecture 4 – October 1 : North American Cities - Population of Canadian cities 1850-1911 Cities 1850 1871 1911 Toronto 30,800 36,000 376,000 Montreal 79,700 107,000 470,000 Quebec city 45,400 St. John’s 30,500 Winnipeg 136,500 Vancouver 100,000 - Population of U.S. cities 1830-1860 Cities 1830 1850 1860 New York 202,000 515,000 813,000 Philadelphia 161,000 340,000 565,000 Chicago 30,000 109,000 - Last week we talked about industrial revolution and the invention of new technologies and energies such as steam and water power , electricity, and other forms of power - It revolutionized the industry, agriculture, and the cities - This caused social and economic changes - Because new jobs were created with the rise of factories (thanks to industrial revolution), more workers were needed to work at these factories oThus population in the cities rose EUROPE - There are 3 differences the industrial revolution brought 1. The revolution created the need of a new type of worker:  Cottage Crafts: baking, weaving, blacksmith. This type of work required certain skills, although not the best, but were needed in pre-industrial society  In factories, the above skills were useless! Most of the time, factory work are fairly simple (compared to cottage crafts) and allow workers to work longer hours o Some factories actually used children  Turn-over rate high because no workplace health and safety so people were getting hurt often 2. Workplace + home = the same in pre-industrial society. E.g. blacksmith work at home, farmers worked on their own farms  Workplace and home separated in industrialized societies (like now) o Although currently, some people work at home 3. New social class structure  Now there was a more complex class system where more layers were added  One of the new class was the industrial entrepreneurs who came up with new ideas  These people had what is called the “new wealth” – which is the different from the aristocratic wealth of land and servants  Now when children of entrepreneurs married children of aristocrats, entrepreneurs gained status and aristocrats gained money - 2 urban phenomenon arose from industrialization oRise of the slum: there was now a bigger labour pool the employers could hire from. If you lost a limb or something, you could get fired right away because more people are available to take your place 1. Poverty isn’t new, but gathering these people together geographically is new oRise of middle class suburb: new type of residential areas were inhabited by manager type people who wanted to live among people of middle class status NORTH AMERICA - From the chart, there was a sudden burst in population in Canadian cities - E.g. in 1850-1871, Winnipeg and Vancouver didn’t have such high populations such as the other cities. But the number jumped up significantl
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