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SOCB44H3 (40)


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John Hannigan

SOCB44: Lecture 2 (pp. 33-47) Next lecture: pp. 40 - 54 Initial human settlements - no such things as cities - people were scattered and existed as hunters and gatherers - only recently that cities were formed  when? Debate about it. First urban settlements - debatable - (estimate) arose around 8000 BCE - 5000 people at best - largest ancient city = Rome (700 – 800K people) - at present, there are cities that have 10 million people Why did people shift from hunters and gatherers to form a city? What brought them together? - What types of conditions need to exist for the formation of cities? What needs to be changed? o Resources  e.g. water VS living in the desert, such as living in Las Vegas using the Colorado River for the fountains, etc. o Advantages of grouping together  e.g. protection o E.g. the movie “idiocracy” o Transportation  Electricity, harness power, inanimate sources of energy o Language  Use of symbols o Agricultural surplus  You are able to produce more food than what you and your family consume - 1 urban settlement arose because of religious purposes  they would build a place of worship o priests, etc. will live in that building o they would conduct religious ceremonies full time so somebody had to feed me o those that lived in the surrounding (hinterland), would offer to the Gods and would feed the priests and others. o More worshippers in the sacred temple/building = expansion of food stalls, prostitutes around the temples, etc. o ^ As a result, the community is growing - under what conditions that people were able to produce agricultural surplus? o Technological innovations that make agriculture more productive o e.g. Ancient Egypt – formed at the Nile Delta Water / large area at the mouth of the Nile River which is very fertile 1  4000 BCE - Gordon Childe – identified the list of characteristics that are essential to what could be described as cities. All these early cities contain a combination of the following: 1. Larger and more densely populated permanent and settlements  prior to that, people were usually nomadic.  Or slash and burn 2. Social classes of non-agricultural specialists including craftsmen, transport workers, merchants, officials, and priests  They do not participate in agriculture  Not everyone does that same thing 3. A system of taxation and capital accumulation  VS hunting and gathering and agricultural communities looked
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