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Sociology (2,430)
SOCB47H3 (73)
Lecture 12

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Francisco Villegas

Lecture 12 Slide Racialized Segmentation  Some employment segment o Production o And living conditions o Along linguistic and cultural lines  Informed by a racialized perspective on work ethic o May lead to the maintenance of gender and racialized stereotypes of workers o May affect selection in following years e.g. Mexicans workers fired after they tried to strike and replace by Jamaican workers Slide Gender/Racialized Segmentation  Workplaces that recruit men and women o Segment sexes by country (e.g. Mexican women, Caribbean men)  “Employers and civil servants frankly acknowledge that hiring is intended to create barriers within the workplace that will both mitigate the potential for greater socializing that accompanies the introduction of a mixed-sex environment and reduce the formation of intimate relationships that could create new social commitments o Barrier for socialization (language differences) o Strategy to prevent intimate relationships Slide  Positive and negative reasons employers give for hiring women  (+) o “Women posses finer, lighter touch and are more patient, responsible, and productive that men” (p. 302) o Women as more hardworking o Keep living quarters cleaners  (-) o Assert themselves by reaching out to advocacy organizations o Seen as problematic (potential for infighting) o Ability to reproduce (can be deported for pregnancy) Slide 41 Internalization of Worker Stereotypes  Leads to a divisive workforce in which employees compete with one another to hold on to jobs Slide 44  Upward mobility because of lack of access. Level of upward mobility doesn‟t necessarily rise. Slide 45  Work permit valid with single employer (labor mobility) o Employers can repatriate workers (deport) if they complain, are sick or injured, pregnant  Quick process lessens workers ability to fight firing and deportation  Confusion over jurisdiction (labor laws are provincial, immigration is federal)  At the farm, geographic mobility o Some farms prohibit visitors of the opposite sex and establish curfews (workers may also help to enforce these practices) Slide Definition of precarious immigration status  Bernard et al. define precarious work as “Individuals in a range of categories who may experience shifts between different types of legal status over the duration of their presence in Canada”  Precarious status underscores the potential multi-dimensionality of insecurity (e.g. work, residence, rights). Slide  More specifically, precarious status is defined as the absence of any of following normally associated with permanents residence (and citizenship)  1) Work authorization  2) The right to remain permanently in the country (residence permit)  3) Not depending on a third party for one‟s right to be in Canada (Such as a sponsoring spouse of employer), and 4) Social citizenship rights available to permanent residents (e.g. public education and public health coverage)* Slide  Taking this into account, what groups of migrants fall under the category of precarious status? o Temporary migrant workers (e.g. SAWP) o International students o Permanent residence/landed immigrant o Refugee claimant o People whose visa (work, study, tourist) has expired o Refugee claimants who received a negative response o Temporary foreign workers Slide  In addition, there is a class and racial component to precarious immigration status. Slide  What does McDonald mean by illegalization? o Calling someone “illegal”. o People who don‟t have status to be in Canada. Non-status. Slide  Illegalization refers to the processes that make people “illegal” o Illegalization is “product of a set of processes rather than…a given state or status (McDonald)  Therefore, “illegality is not inherent quality in individuals it is something that is produced  This disrupts ideas about migrants as “criminals” Slide Illegalization as inclusion and exclusion  In addition, “Illegalization works to both socially exclude, through such practices as detention, deportation, and the closing of legal avenues for entry, and socially include under imposed conditions of exploitability and disposability.”  Inclusion as an economic factor: o This inclusion, involves filling labor needs and “satisfying the demand for cheap, exploitable, and disposable labor”. (McDonald 72) Slide  To make this point, McDonald draws on the work of Nandita Sharma who argues that o “Immigration polices in Canada tend to uphold a system of global apartheid”  What dopes she mean by Apartheid? o Separation of people Slide  Apartheid  South African apartheid: black and white population literally segregated to the benefit of the white population  Sharma‟s use of Apartheid refers not to the “physical exclusion of a group of people from a territorial space; rather, it means their inclusion…as “illegal” or “unlawful”. This categorization ensures the imposed state of exploitability through an erasure of legal personhood for a specified group of people/workers” (McDonald 68)  Illegalized migrants are included in the nation state, and once there, are often excluded from permanent residence, stable and safe work and essential services. Slide  What do we mean by Regularization? Slide  Regularization o “Programs that offer opportunities for people living with precarious immigration status in Canada [or other countries] to apply for permanent status”. Slide Example of regularization programs  Action Committee for Non-status Algerians (CADDA) o Algerians fleeting conflict in their country, mostly migrated to Quebec o Often denied refugee status o Algeria: moratorium country from 1997-2002 o 2002: Canada began deporting Algerians again o Non-status Algerians worked with allies to demand status o Canadian and Quebec governments introduced a regularization procedure for Algerian refugee claimants who had been living in Quebec o 900 regularized, over 150 people did not meet the Quebec residency had a criminal record or could not afford to pay the large application fee for the program Slide  What are limits to regularization? Slide  Semantics o “The term regularization…ha
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