1 essay (choice of 2)
6 short answer (choice of 8)
Bad: imbalance of power, exploitation, devalue skills/work
Good: lower cheaper $, higher trade across countries, speed, quantity
Fair: for whom?
Pros: globalization brings prosperity to all involved.
Cons: (e.g. organized labor and anti-globalization movement) argue that it
has left to the impoverishment of working class people.
However, Ng tells us that manufacturing still occurs in cities. One
example is the garment industry.
Large national retail chains (e.g. the Bay) &
Large transnational retail chains such as Wal-Mart
Manufacturers ware houses, factories
Retail chains other countries
Paid less, less benefits can be moved
Concentrates capital in a few companies
o Through technological innovations centralized control over an
industry which is becoming increasingly decentralized
Retails and manufactures cut down costs
o Do not have to have large factories to upkeep
o Do not have to pay storage or other overhead costs
Employ subcontractors (called jobbers), “who may use home-based
workers or sweatshop operations to minimize operating costs and
maximize profit margins” p. 376
Profit is extracted at each level, increasing the exploitation of workers at
Or, production is relocated completely to other countries.
Workers who remain have seen a decline in real wages and deterioration
of working conditions
Increase in sweatshops
Insolation from other works if doing home-based work
Difficult to regulate industry
Agreements gets rid of or reduce tariffs and quotas to import garments. In the case of NAFTA, many companies moved to Mexico where labor and
production costs are cheaper.
“this has led directly to job loss, depression of Canadian wages, and the
restructuring of garment manufacturing in the Canadian context”
in the Mexican context it has led to environmental degradation, loss of