Correction: description answers what questions and analysis answers how
and why questions.
Racism is not singular.
Structural differences affect access to opportunities.
Power is changing, not situated in one place/person.
Material symbolic benefit to the oppressor.
Analyzing how we articulate social differences
Drawing from our experiential knowledge
Understanding how differential power and privilege work in society
Using race as an entry point
Extending the discussion to include global political economic issues
Engaging in a progressive politics for social transformation
Relational (not only top-down, web)
Embossed in social relations, not natural or inherent in individuals
What do we mean by foundational: help set up, the base, the very
beginning and what holds it together.
And, some of the policies and societal behaviors in Canada today still
exhibit a white settler project as we‟ll discuss in a couple of weeks.
Pride in one‟s country.
Privileging of one‟s nation.
Beliefs, values – shared.
National symbols beaver, melting pot (mosaic), flag, landmarks (CN
tower), Tim Horton‟s, hockey.
Chronology involved in the production of a nation.
Let‟s Break It Down
o Collection of people
o Believe they share a common past and are destined to share a
Continuum: Glorious past present even better future
o Often have a common language o Sense of otherness from groups around them
o Commitment to fostering above beliefs and
o Promoting policies to do so (therefore nationalism takes constant
National anthems, hockey, national holidays and events (remembrance
day), wearing red and white, wearing maple leafs jersey, watching events
and recording them (Olympics), nice, polite, eat bacon.
o Have to manage populations (in this case in terms of race).
o Imagine a specific national identity.
Cultural and physical genocide that occurred to the First Nations.
Canada first movement: creating an image of a northern face that
represents monarchy and contrasting the U.S. who is more weaker and
Canada First Movement
o In the mid to late 1800s, what we now would describe as
„Canadians‟ were having difficulties creating a coherent “identity”
o Faced threats of being forcibly incorporated to
French speaking “Canada”
o There was also a need to differentiate themselves from racialized
o All this led to the Canada First Movement
Canada First Movement
Canada = Britain of the North
Canada‟s geographical location = unique
o Had a link to other “northern races” (European?)
o Different from the U.S.
Linked environment to character
o Described environment strong and masculine versus places in the
south which were describes as feminine and therefore “weaker”
Contractions of the Canada First Movement
1. Presence of French and Aboriginal communities
o If Canada was only fit for „northern races‟ which they describes as
white Anglo Saxon? ?
2. Need for labor immigration
o In order to build a country, and keep up with their American
neighbours, Canada needed people power
Reproduction was not enough, needed to recruit immigrants
(some of them from non “white” regions as we saw in the
The Group of seven shifted tho