Continuation of a project…
o Invisibilization of the oppressions experienced by racialized
communities and the claims made to be better the situation.
o Division of people living/working in Canada along the lines of
o How have ideas about Multiculturalism been framed?
o What assumptions are inherent (visibilized) that allow MC to
o How does our understanding of MC structure the types of
questions/critiques that can be asked?
Protagonist: person with large importance.
British and French. Tension for territory.
English and French speaking communities.
o 2 solitudes.
o Set in contradiction to each other through an ideological battle for
o Less pay
o Media representation was negative
Divide and conquer: treat different groups differently and they get mad at
each other instead of blame you.
o Work in certain occupations
In the mid 1900s…
o Response to lessons learned after WWII and the ways in which
exclusion/discrimination can lead to extremist projects
o Also response to civil rights movements
Bannerji tells us… o Recognition of a need for increased immigration in order to
increase capitalist industrial growth.
Visible minorities. One of the 4 groups that need protection for work
discrimination. Protecting: visible minorities, aboriginal, women and
o Women: hot, visible minority.
o Men: cold, majority.
Even though color isn’t used in the term, it means you can see difference,
and that you are racializing. If people are normalized then they are
invisible in the fact that we don’t have to identify them.
Visible = non-white.
Minority = a way to describe unequal decision-making power for non-
Also if racalized communities are “visible minorities” how foes that aw
refer to the white settler population
o Canadian Canadians?
Ignores that First Nations have been here for thousands and thousands of
years and to depict them as immigrants with new coming immigrants could
The idea that we all are equal and choose to come here equality,
choice. We all came under the same conditions so we can’t complain
about structural differences.
Colonization is reconstructed as migration.
1. If we are all constituted as immigrants, discrimination directed toward
immigration is invisibilized.
2. Invisibilization of First Nations communities and colonialism of white
3. Erases any distinction between colonizers and immigrants (invisibilizes
the race-based nation-building project that led to Canada we know it
Under such simplistic statements
o E.g.: “we are all immigrants,” how would we account for
JFK’s assertion that they were “immigrants from Africa”?
E.g.: “we are all colonizers,” or “all immigrants are colonizers” how would
we account for the displacement of people aboard and their search for better conditions (for instance the colonization of South Asians under the
We all have the same rights and access if we work hard for it.
If we all work hard, we will get to the same place because we are on a
We are not on a level plane because certain people got extra stuff and
they started higher up than with everyone else who was lower.
Why did putting multiculturalism into the Canadian law occur?
The way in which multiculturalism has played, everyone is important and
their culture is great.