Exam: 6 short answer questions (speak to particular concept or idea) &
large essay (ex: compare different concepts or different reading or talk
about Komogaratu. Will be given choice (choose 1 out of 2), ex: define
heterognity (?) and explain it.
o Attitudes about the “other” influenced by ideas of the “West” as
o A very narrow definition of Islam circulates in the West which does
not reflect the diversity of practices, societies, histories,
geographies, and culture.
In the name of women, civilizing missions and colonialists took over large
part of the world in the past (also in relation to war in Afghanistan)
This creates a hierarchy…
o Western women imagined as “already liberated” (they don‟t
E.g. if a Muslim girl has a problem with her parents, it was identified as a
cultural problem where the parents were unable to break with their
A similar prescription did not occur for non Muslim girls with the same
Hybrid identity: you may experience different identities when your in
different social locations. You engage in different practices at home from
school. May speak their language at home, but at school there is a
pressure to fit into general North American society and therefore lessen
their accent and on the ways they engage with families and society.
o Geographic distance we take up
o Social space in how we engage in our day-to-day life. Personal
space where you only let certain people (family, friends) and not
others (strangers, acquaintances)
o Time-space compression (globalization)
o Is not neutral
o Is political
o Is produced by processes in the past and present
Slide 5 Space Place
Empathy container Social meaning attached to a certain place
Examples: work, place, school, coffee shop, etc.
Gentrification: renovating old homes, which lead prices of the area to
increase. Might have community clinic, grocery, shopping nearby and you
o The restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class
resulting in the displacement of low-income residents.
Classes phenomenon (that often has race and gender
Examples: Distillery District, Regent Park, a lot of construction during
Olympics and people become displaced (if people‟s homes don‟t fit the
look you portray to the world)
Therefore, inequality across space is not only about controlling space, but
controlling space to control the bodies that inhabit it.
Uneven access to resources.
Association of black community members with garbage
Hierarchy of humanness, civilization and progress
o Residue: something that is left behind but also something unwanted
that needs to be divided from the rest of society
Segregation in place of race.
Marginalization in Africville continued
Difficult to get a permit to improve homes
Community associated with criminality
Africville was therefore not seen as part of Halifax, instead “residual city”
Self-fulfilling prophecy: ways in which the community was depicted by
Halifax. It wasn‟t internalized by resident but the city created the image
and the actions with the image lead to the community looking in that way.
Description of a population…marginalized community
This marginalized community is then associated with degeneracy and filth
which further justifies the denial of essential services
Instead it was posed…
o The “problem” was to obvious, it only needed to be fixed. o And any attempt to suggest that relocation was influenced by race
was seen as biased and goi