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SOCB53H3 (17)
Lecture 2

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Vanina Sztainbok

January 17The concept of race and the radicalization of social divisionsCertainly race typologies which derive from a scientific racism which purported to specify criteria for designating individuals to phenoltypical types has been both a historical product and totally discreditedRace is one way by which the boundary is to be constructed between those who can and those who cannot belong to a particular construction of a collectivity or populationIn the case of race this is on the basis of an immutable biological or physiolognomic difference which may or may not be seen to be expressed mainly in culture or lifestyle but is always grounded on the separation of human populations by some notion of stock or collective heredity of traitsUnderstanding racism as modes of exclusion inferiorization subordination and exploitation that present specific and different characters in different social and historical contextsExtreme examples are those of extermination segregation and slaveryThese are differentially experienced by different class ethnic and gender categories This is not a unitary system of signification that can be labeled racist nor is there a unitary perpetrator or victimIn our view the explication of racisms therefore cannot be undertaken purely with reference to ethnic or race phenomenaEthnos ethnicity and nationalismHistorically ethnic national or racial categories have been formed in various ways through conquests colonization and immigration and of course the modern variants of these categories under the sway of capitalism and imperialism as well as their most prominent political form that of the liberal democratic stateTherefore groups those have been called or have called themselves national at one point or in one territory have become ethnic or racial in other contextsEthnic groups involve the positing of boundaries in relation to who can and cannot belong according to certain parameters which are extremely heterogeneous ranging from the credentials of birth to being born in the right place conforming to cultural or other symbolic practices language and very centrally behaving in sexually appropriate waysCultural stuff often provides the credentials for being able to cross the boundary or being excludedAlthough the boundaries are ideological they involve material practices and therefore material origins and effects
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