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Week 10 Lecture Note

Course Code
John Hannigan

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Dual City – Manuel Castells: TheInformational City (1989)
Castells is one of better known names in urban sociology/planning
Is Spanish originally, when he was younger academic, moved to Paris
Originally wrote Marxist urban stuff that was hard to read
Eventually moved to US, Berkeley, where he got better
Wrote a book and won lots of prizes
Manuel Castells points out that the dual city is a class theme in urban sociology, he basically means
that the idea that you can have rich neighbourhoods and poor neighbourhoods living right next to each
other but having nothing to do with one another is certainly not unique to 21st century
If we go back a long way to history and find the wealthy and the poor living in the same orbit
Some of the first discussions of this rolls back to ancient Rome
We think of Rome more in terms of the wealthy Romes, but in addition to the kind of Romes that
passed down historically (Rome of Art and Philosophy and other things) support all that was a huge
population – poor people
Some of them were slaves, some of them not
In urban history, those who have studied ancient Rome paid attention to the other side of Rome
Has a lot of similarity of slums we see today
Back in ancient Rome, there were two citiesrich and poor
In urban sociology, the problem was in late 19th and early 20th century was industrial city, was good
example of rich and poor living in relatively close proximity
The chapter in Hall book, a lot of what hes writing is overview of the dual city as it emerged out of
the industrial revolution, talks about England and US, and theres extensive discussion of dual city as
it was perceived by early American sociologist and others (*Not going to test a lot of material on it*)
From SOCB44, when were doing this section on Chicago School, and spent some time on the book
The Gold Coast and the Slum (1927)Harvey Zorbough
oFirst research method looked at areas in Chicago
oUsed all kinds of things from observational study to using records and multiple methods
oLooked at a number of neighbourhoods that were in close proximity to one another but were miles
oAmong these, there was an Italian slum, and there was a Bohemian area
oThe title of this book...the Gold Coast was the rich area with huge mansions and iron gates,
similar to Rosedale, Bridlepath in Toronto
oSlums were mentioned here as an ethnic area with Italians
oZorboughs point which is one reason why the book is carried over is that people who lived in the
Gold Coast had virtually nothing in common with the people in the slums, had no regular
interaction with one another on a regular basis, didnt hold any values in common, both lived in
downtown Chicago but lived in different styles
oUrban reform in England when it started was a result of the middle class and urban slum in
Manchester, waking up one day and noticing all the urban poverty around them...prior to that
they were able to ignore it in the surrounding area where they lived
oIn a sense, it was revitalization of those better neighbourhoods, and those people were living in
poor housing, sanitation, crime, etc.
Castells points out that the term dual city refers to more these days than just adjacent neighbourhoods,
some of which are very poor and others very rich
The term has come one to take on a wider meaning – refers to shifting jobs to shifting economies
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The starting point is what we call de-industrialization = the disappearance of manufacturing jobs in
many cities
Initially in US, these jobs went from the Northern part of the country to the South and the West,
leaving the areas left behind
The term used to describe what was left behind was the rustbelt
Cities that used to be dependent on steel wheel and textile factories and auto factories will be replaced
In terms of a replacement for the older industrialized jobs, there is the high tech = saviour of cities,
particularly the Silicon Valley of San Francisco (Google and Apple seem to be salvation saviours of
these cities)
There has been some regions/cities that have certainly done well because of the high tech economy,
but for every urban region that is profited by these high tech jobs, there are many more that havent
Not every city can be a Silicon Valley
In Canada, there are several regions that have prospered as a result of the high tech economy –
Waterloo (Research In Motion)
One of the reasons that happened in Waterloo was the connection to University of Waterloo, which
developed a good reputation for turning out graduates in programs that are commodities for the
American high tech company
Ottawa also had high tech corridor around Kanata, which had a Silicon Valley but has been declining
in recent years
What the contemporary interpretation of the growth is about is two different trends in the economy
which are happening at the same time and in parallel in one another and also in isolation from one
Reason: the growth of high tech economy, places that have prospered in the short run as a result
Another thing that has happened is the growth of service economyservice jobs are low paying,
these are jobs which were supposed to replace the manufacturing jobs but dont because a job working
at McDonalds or Burger King at minimum wage is not going to replace a job in an auto plant or
manufacturing plant making 40 or 50 dollars an hour
One of the problems happening in cities is that if you looked at overall employment figures, then its
reflective...but if you look at quality of jobs, flipping burgers is not considered high quality
Yes, there are high tech jobs and may account for 30% of jobs, but the other 70% are in low-paying
service jobs
Filling gas tanks and flipping burgers and making tacos in food courts are minimum wage jobs and
not jobs that you think of in terms of career
Theres another economy that operates, and this is called the informal economythese are jobs that
dont show up in the official employment statistics, sometimes they dont show up as paying taxes
because they tend to be cash economy, money earned under the table
Whats happened in past decades that has promoted tremendous growth is informal economy, some
takes the form of a barter economy – in other words, I’ll do this for you if you do this for me” (e.g.
I’ll fix your car if you cut my hair)
That doesnt show up in terms of official snapshot of whats happening in the economy
There are many ethnic communities where those barter economies happen
Another economy is the criminal economy – in inner cities but not restricted to inner cities, a lot of
the money that circulates comes from selling drugs considering it also contributes to all types of
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