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Lecture 2

SOCC38 Lecture 2: WEEK 2


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCC38H3
Professor
Ann Mullen
Lecture
2

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WEEK 2
IMPICIT ASSOCIATION TEST
-Female in humanities, seeing more women, therefore we are more likely to relate
females to humanities
-Tend to associated women with more ‘feminine’ association—subconscious
-‘Gender pattern’s
oHard for us to step back and see when we are in it, we tend to take gender
patterns for granted
KIMMEL, THE GENDERED SOCIETY
-Title: ‘Gendered Society’
oGender is a characteristic of a social world
oMen and women are so different that they might as well be form different
worlds
-Gender difference matters when tied in with inequality
oProducing new inequality
oWomen can easily wear what men wear, however it is not seen vice versa
Little kids: Boys in shorts can run and climb trees (gives boys a
chance to be active). Girls in skirts cannot climb trees (makes girls
inactive). Clothing restrictions contribute to different experiences
-Theoretical Perspectives
oBiological Determinism: Attributed to biology. ‘Hard-wired’
oSocialization: Treated differently when young; early socialization
oSocial Constructionist: We construct these factors and it determines how
we see things. Much of what we see is not inevitable. How much gender
differs in other regions, it is not fixed. Gender varies across time. Gender
is an organizing principle in society.
-Critiques of Biological Determinism
oMen have on average 10x the testosterone compared to women
oMen with low levels of testosterone were see to be less aggressive
oFinnish study—No difference in testosterone between violent and non-
violent men
oSocial Interactions—Aggressiveness causes testosterone to go up
oWhat comes first? Biology or interaction?
-Early childhood experiences influences early childhood hormones
-Making gender available to both men and women
oGender is seen as invisible to men—we don’t think of them as ‘men’, we
think of them as the dominant
oWhen men are studied, they are see as individuals
o‘Invisibility’: Can think of themselves just as humans and not recognize
their genders. Whereas women don’t have ‘invisibility’. (example: whites
compared to blacks or Asians)
-Critiques of Social Constructionist
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