- Can be written in first person
- Have an empirical evidence – internet sources can be used but there need to
be references, at least 5-10 peer reviewed academic books
- You don’t have to argue but it has to be position and explain how privatizing
- Any citation format accepted but must be used consistently
Different thoughts and metaphors of policing
- Emerged in the early to mid 1980’s and it was stamped 2 related concerns:
o Pressure the police was under from in many cities in US (high crime
rates) in the sense that police were community issues or involvement.
The police we talk about lose their monopoly over policing.
o Idea of community policing – has become what the police are now.
What was community policing about? One of the contradictions
about community policing was, for example, Neighborhood
policing program – increase in satellite programs or patrol
units in certain neighborhoods.
What is the problem/paradox of community policing? There
was no sense of community. Another words, neighborhoods
that had strong sense of cohesion are likely to be homogenous
and lower crime rates and did not have community-policing
programs. Community policing was heavy handed way for
police to increase targeted racial policing
o Community policing is a historical artifact now.
Zero tolerance policing
- Particularly NYC – police commissioners there are associated with being
tough on crime. And it migrated into Canada and UK
- ZTP was hard to define “being tough on policing” and Zero Tolerance Policing
was about if police were doing their job. Also, the targets of ZTP were
relatively minor effects.
- Is there such thing as ZTP? Because it means police should never use
o Should police use discretion in carrying out their work? Of course they
should. The hallmark of policing is that they use discretion. It is not
the only authoritarian state where they use discretion. In fact it is not
just their ability to use discretion but also they are expected to. It has
to be lawful and reasonable, of course, and has to be consistent with
particular principles. We expect police to use discretion. The use of
police discretion and how others understand one of the issue of nature of policing is the nature of police discretion. It characterizes
how police understands it. It is the matter of great debate. Sometimes
we can argue that the nature of policing is the use of police discretion.
Sometimes zero-tolerance is a huge flaw for this reason. So ZTP didn’t
last long. Zero tolerance filtered down the justice system. It has been
used in cases of drunk driving, domestic violence, etc. But even that
has faded away and today it is rare for police to talk about ZTP.
However, we hear about zero-tolerance in schools (bullying),
workplace, airport security failed idea of law enforcement
migrated into non-enforcement settings. ZRP in schools, drug testing,
in specific circumstances. i.e. bullying.
Broken windows policing
- Influential theory, first popularized by George Kelling and James Wilson
- This theory was anchored in 3 assumptions/background themes about the
o 20-30 years ago, life and society was apparently safer. But this idea of
nostalgia that world was a lot safer and simpler years ago. Your radar
goes up right away. 30-40 years ago, who was the society safer for?
Gay people? Black people? Visible minorities? So who is it safe for? In
crime stats, we see the decline in crime rate. Right now Toronto may
be the safest place and time. It is intuitively powerful and installed as
o Idea which is widely shared by a lot of people, some extent to liberal
individual rights in the 60’s and 70’s. The individual rights have gone
too far due to permissive liberals.
o Sense that the society was in the moral spiral of decline – severity of
respect that people had to be taken seriously. It has parabolic thing to
it – it is almost parallel and we are in situation that society and moral
is out of control and we had to do something about it. There is
urgency sort of quality around discussion of policing.
Broken windows policing
- Uses physical building metaphor – signals attitude and neglect that
encourages more windows to be broken. Elements from psychologists that it
- Something counter-intuitive about this: this is where it gets controversial.
This physical metaphor applies to people. If we don’t do anything about these
people (loiters, etc.) then this will cause serious problems. Then they said
that the beggars are the first broken windows. If we don’t do something
about a beggar we will have hoards of beggars and broken windows = huge
crime rates. These individuals will cause serious crime. There is disorderly
type of individual’s metaphor as human broken windows and their presence
will multiply. Serious crimes will increase. - What do you do to repair a human broken window? You might think that
you follow broken window’s logic. Policing and law enforcement is used in
targeted way to bring 16 century vagrancy statues. This is ritorious for 2
SUS - People that look suspicious
VAG – Vagrancy law: they target Status – who you are, not
necessarily what you do.
- So what happened when they were removed from Criminal