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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCC11H3
Professor
Joyce Parga
Semester
Summer

Description
ANTC23 L6 Sexual dimorphism - Morphological differences between males and females in: o Body size and shape o Color: sexual dichromatism - Not all primates show sexual dimorphism o Sexual monomorhism: sexes are the same size, color, etc. - In many primates, if sexes differ in body size, usually the males are bigger o Why? Male-male physically aggressive contest competition over females.  Larger body size in males has been “selected for” because this trait has been adaptive in these species 2 types of competition - Contest competition: when a resource can be monopolized by a single individual or group and can be fought over o Hanuman langurs o Size and strength is an advantage - Scramble competition: when a resource is exploited by the individual that arrives and uses it first o Small nocturnal prosimians that don’t live in social groups o Gelada baboons, aye-aye, Howler monkey, gorilla o It can become a contest competition Sexual dimorphism and mating systems - Which mating system is most frequently associated with sexual dimorphism in the form of larger males? o Polygyny i.e. gelada baboon, Hamadryas baboon o Polygynandrous species sometimes have sexual dimorphism (with larger males) i.e. common chimps o Monogamous species are usually sexually monomorphic in body size. i.e. titi monkey Sexual dimorphism and taxonomic groups - Most apes are sexually dimorphic in body size, with larger males o Except for gibbons and siamangs. They do have sexual dichromatism but pretty much the same size. - Many OW monkeys are sexually dimorph9ic in body size with larger males - Many NW monkeys and prosimians are NOT sexually dimorphic in body size. i.e. marmosets o Exception: in some nocturnal prosimians with dispersed mating systems, males are larger than females. i.e. galagos Sexual dimorphism in canine size - Males with larger canines than females – indicates male-male physically aggressive contest competition. o Many polygynous and polygynandrous mating systems Secondary sexual characteristics - External traits that help dis
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