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SOCC25 – W3.docx

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Francisco Villegas

SOCC25 W3 Essay guidelines Presentation guidelines Sign up for presentations (at break) Concepts Discourse Discursive practice Neo-racism Transnationalism Social construction of refugees (in comparison with economic migrants) Complexity of migratory experiences Complexity of lives in the context of reception The West and the Rest Discourse Takes into the messiness of human interaction and the making of meaning Discourses are ways of taking, thinking, or representing a particular subject or topicThey produce meaningful knowledge about that subject. Discursive understandings affect social practices and have material consequences on peoples lives. There is not a singular discourse, numerous discourse vie for supremacy and are affected by power relations Discourses are not reducible to class interests, but always operate in relation to power- they are part of the way power circulates and is contested. When a discourse is effective it is called a regime of truth Discourse vs. Ideology The discourse of racism has to do with the notion of white supremacy. - Stewart Hall has explained the discourse. It has to do with particular topic b the ways we talk about it and other things that are associated with it. It has to do with representation. - Discourse: life is messy. Some are contradictory. There are predominant discourses. They are not narratives. Discourse is based on power and it is embedded in it. For particular discourse formation - Hall how do we express knowledge of topic? What concepts do we use? What do we take for granted? Statement about topic has discourse which lets us construct topics in certain ways. It will affect way the things are represented. Within the statement, discourse produces knowledge. These discourses are knowledge. It is a broad concept. Hall has to do with understanding that this has to do producing meaning. It is embedded in power. He writes that discourse is one of the ways which power circulates. This is always power relation. Those that produce discourse has power to produce truth. - In sociology, you write about ideology - This course is very much about ideology. Hall ideology speaks about truth and false statement. This is scientific validity on what is truth and what is false. This is questioning and arguing that truth is subjective. Science can be more to prove something. How stats are skewed to arguments. We play such high emphasis on stats we will believe anything thy say - Discourses are based on power cuz of that. Diff btwn freedom fighter and terrorist is depending on who names them and who determines that understanding. Politics of naming is very important. We will act according to that name and understanding. That truth has real consequences of people. - Certain descriptions even if they appear false, It can turn truth because ppl act upon them. So it has consequences Orientalism Ways that the Orient was constructed and produced through discourses and institutions Drew from 4 sources Classical knowledge Religious and biblical sources Mythology Travellers tales Orientalist discourse has had effects on lived experience How these very different discourses with variable statuses as evidence, provided the cultural framework through which the peoples, places, and things of the New World were seen, described and represented (p. 59). Orientalism as conflation of fact and fantasy that constituted knowledge (p. 59) - Hall then talks about orientalism. o Representation of others. He analyzes object of knowledge o These 4 diff things are understood as being truthful o These sources create understanding of the other particularly to the understanding to the west. How west interacted w the other. These sources brought understanding of who is understanding. Understanding as truth affect our practices. o Power relationship btwn the west benefited the west very similar to Smith last lecture. Who benefits and who writes history - Since all knowledge is legitimized from the west, regime of truth follows all interaction with the other Regime of truth A discourse is a way of talking about or representing something. It produces knowledge that shapes perceptions and practice. It is part of the way in which power operates. Therefore it has consequences for both those who employ it and those who are subjected to it (p.60) Counter-narratives Resistance to dominant discourse Employing different bodies of knowledge - Regime of truth: o Taken for granted o Been around for so long that we just think they are true. Their representation is widely accepted. o Discourse is way of talking about representing something. It is operating truth power structure. The way people are constructed are affected by it. Actions happen based on what problem is. How is that power framed. Thats regime of truth o Hall only thinks about west and outside. - Discourse shapes the way we understand refugee. It constructs the way we think of the queen etc. what does one look like? Who is the citizen? Who is within those boundaries? Who belongs to the nation? - All these understandings are based on power structures, sexism, homophobia, classism, etc. - This practice, as opposed to lower bodies, classifies who are good students or not. They believed them
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