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Social construction of refugees (in comparison with economic
Complexity of migratory experiences
Complexity of lives in the context of reception
The West and the Rest
Takes into the messiness of human interaction and the making of
Discourses are ways of taking, thinking, or representing a
particular subject or topicThey produce meaningful
knowledge about that subject.
Discursive understandings affect social practices and have
material consequences on peoples lives.
There is not a singular discourse, numerous discourse vie for
supremacy and are affected by power relations
Discourses are not reducible to class interests, but
always operate in relation to power- they are part of the
way power circulates and is contested.
When a discourse is effective it is called a regime of truth
Discourse vs. Ideology
The discourse of racism has to do with the notion of white supremacy.
- Stewart Hall has explained the discourse. It has to do with particular topic b
the ways we talk about it and other things that are associated with it. It has to
do with representation.
- Discourse: life is messy. Some are contradictory. There are predominant
discourses. They are not narratives. Discourse is based on power and it is
embedded in it. For particular discourse formation
- Hall how do we express knowledge of topic? What concepts do we use?
What do we take for granted? Statement about topic has discourse which lets
us construct topics in certain ways. It will affect way the things are
represented. Within the statement, discourse produces knowledge. These
discourses are knowledge. It is a broad concept. Hall has to do with understanding that this has to do producing meaning. It is embedded in
power. He writes that discourse is one of the ways which power circulates.
This is always power relation. Those that produce discourse has power to
- In sociology, you write about ideology
- This course is very much about ideology. Hall ideology speaks about truth
and false statement. This is scientific validity on what is truth and what is
false. This is questioning and arguing that truth is subjective. Science can be
more to prove something. How stats are skewed to arguments. We play such
high emphasis on stats we will believe anything thy say
- Discourses are based on power cuz of that. Diff btwn freedom fighter and
terrorist is depending on who names them and who determines that
understanding. Politics of naming is very important. We will act according to
that name and understanding. That truth has real consequences of people.
- Certain descriptions even if they appear false, It can turn truth because ppl
act upon them. So it has consequences
Ways that the Orient was constructed and produced through discourses
Drew from 4 sources
Religious and biblical sources
Orientalist discourse has had effects on lived experience
How these very different discourses with variable statuses as
evidence, provided the cultural framework through which the
peoples, places, and things of the New World were seen, described
and represented (p. 59).
Orientalism as conflation of fact and fantasy that constituted
knowledge (p. 59)
- Hall then talks about orientalism.
o Representation of others. He analyzes object of knowledge
o These 4 diff things are understood as being truthful
o These sources create understanding of the other particularly to the
understanding to the west. How west interacted w the other. These
sources brought understanding of who is understanding.
Understanding as truth affect our practices.
o Power relationship btwn the west benefited the west very similar to
Smith last lecture. Who benefits and who writes history
- Since all knowledge is legitimized from the west, regime of truth follows all
interaction with the other
Regime of truth A discourse is a way of talking about or representing something. It produces
knowledge that shapes perceptions and practice. It is part of the way in
which power operates. Therefore it has consequences for both those who
employ it and those who are subjected to it (p.60)
Resistance to dominant discourse
Employing different bodies of knowledge
- Regime of truth:
o Taken for granted
o Been around for so long that we just think they are true. Their
representation is widely accepted.
o Discourse is way of talking about representing something. It is
operating truth power structure. The way people are constructed are
affected by it. Actions happen based on what problem is. How is that
power framed. Thats regime of truth
o Hall only thinks about west and outside.
- Discourse shapes the way we understand refugee. It constructs the way we
think of the queen etc. what does one look like? Who is the citizen? Who is
within those boundaries? Who belongs to the nation?
- All these understandings are based on power structures, sexism,
homophobia, classism, etc.
- This practice, as opposed to lower bodies, classifies who are good students or
not. They believed them