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Lecture 2

Week 2 Lecture Note

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Hannigan

Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928): Garden City of Tomorrow Urban utopias = ideal cities Throughout the 20 century, there are a number of these ideal cities that are designed and planned This is the story of a guy who was a nobody and suddenly was most influential planner of 20 century, came up with Garden City Biography: o Ebenezer Howard was a small shopkeeper o At 15, became clerk in London, then became a drifter and drifted around from one job to another o Then he and two of his friends decided they were going to make a fortune and move to America o Landed in New York, which at that time American government ran a program where you get land in the West o The three friends decided to do farming o Not surprisingly, it was a complete failure; he didnt know anything about farming o Basically, he spent a year farming and failed o Eventually, he decided to make his way to Chicago and went back into office employment and became a clerk in an office in Chicago o He was shorthand = back in 19 century, when offices first started to appear because of industrialization, one of the things in offices was sending letters, did not have mechanical device to record, one of the inventions was typewriter, used a shorthand code to type it on the typewriter o Shorthand had a tremendous social impact o Ebenezer was a guy who was single-minded and reads extensively, was fairly much glued into the ideas of the time (a time when a lot of ideas are thrown around) o What made him a genius was he was able to take these ideas and synthesize them o He found his ideas in a number of places There was a book called Looking Backwards written by Edward Bellamy o Hero of looking backwards and living in Boston and falls asleep, when he wakes up hes in 2000 o The world has changed completely in the year 2000 o Basically, the economy is centrally controlled, one government and he centrally controls the economy rather than competition, everybody works for the same company o Similarly, all consumer goods are sold to the one big store and had branches in small towns and large cities o No difference in wages, they all worked for a kind of industrial army o Bellamy puts a positive spin on it o When the book came out in late 19 century, was the best bookseller
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