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Lecture 4

Week 4 Lecture Note

6 Pages

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John Hannigan

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Week 4: Solutions to the crisis of the industrial city in late 19 and early 20 century (crowding, poverty, poor sanitation, sub-standard housing, etc.): Urban utopias (ideal solutions): Garden citiesnew towns (E. Howard) o Start fresh and build beyond the existing cities, book them up with new settlements that combine the best of the town and country Radiant city (Le Corbusier) o City of towers, was opposite solution to Ebenezers o Idea was not to decentralize and build cities in lower density, but to build super high rises right in the middle and still provide greenery around it by having super density o Multi-tier transportation, hubs, trains, roads, planes stacked on top of one another City beautiful (D. Burnham) - City of monuments o Found its way into contemporary cities o The existing cities are dark and ugly, they redesigned them to look nice o Essential flaw is that problems of industrial city is not just aesthetics, there are social problems that have to do with inequality poverty, housing problems o In order to really solve urban problems, you have to attack these things from a social economic view why is there so much poverty and social housing? City Beautiful It particularly pops out in a city when it wins the Olympic What they end up doing is putting a lot of mind in beautifying those streets and other areas that lead into the Olympic stadium They clear slums out and put the poor people out in the suburbs If it has all kinds of social problems, sweep them away and beautify it, but these things never work in the long run The City Beautiful movement pops out in one form or another through 19 and 20 th century One of the great names in City Beautiful movement is named Haussmann was responsible for redesigning parts of Paris characterized by the grand avenues where they are really wide Paris didnt use to look like that, it was particularly a city around Roman time, the streets were narrow, crowded just like London was before Haussmanns great achievement was that although not totally, but in some parts of Paris to get rid of those old narrow crowded streets in Paris and open it up into these grand avenues and monumental buildings, thought of as the glory Paris He designed this during the reign of an emperor Napoleon III Theres also some discussion in the Hall book, an area of Vienna in Austria called Ringstrasse (Vienna)
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