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SOCC29 LEC 7.docx

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Rania Salem

HOODFAR: HISTORICALTRENDS IN URBAN WOMENS LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION Men and women’s bog worked in cottage industries and factories It was hard to distinguish between the two After British rule…they discouraged factory working but encouraged the growing of cotton because of its textile industries back in the UK Many women left the labour women and ceased to work During the second phase of industrialization underAbdel Nasser, factory jobs went to men but not women Because factories are father away from where people lived therefore It was hard for women to combine household jobs and factory jobs HOODFAR: THE CURRENT SITUATION Some urban women now participate in informal petty production or service provision in their neighborhoods Those urban women with educations try to secure jobs in the formal civil service or in publicly owned companies HOODFAR: URBAN WOMEN INSEACRH OF RESPECTAND SECURITY If women had a choice they would be… a. housewives Pros: don’t have to pay for childcare, it was socially respected because this indicated that their husbands were well off enough for them to stay home, and this also indicated that they were abiding the quran b. white collar workers: more job security, higher status c. self employment: petty trade that can be done in locations that are convenient for them d. blue collar work: lower status women are trying to combine respect and economics HOODFAR: WHITE COLLAR WORKERS Requires education and contacts in government workplaces Their jobs… Are prestigious Earn them the respect of husbands Give them protection from patriarchal risk (less dependent on husband, decrease the risk of husband marrying a second wife, and keeps the husband around) However, their jobs… Compete with their family responsibilities Endanger their reputations Incur costs such as transportation and business attire Have wages that are low and declining (wages in the govt sector are not keeping up with inflation) So why would women keep these jobs? Patriarchal risk is a main reason why they kept these jobs They wanted a source of income incase their husbands left them They also get pensions with the govt jobs which could sustain them when they retire As a result of white collar works disadvantages… Women are financially dependent on husbands, who can work more then one job (husbands jobs were just as poorly paid as women’s jobs, but they could take on night jobs too) Women take up the veil to signal gender conservatism, save time and save money (it signaled to others that they are good wives, and that they are commented to the sexual DOL where I am a committed mother but also a worker) (it also meant that they didn’t have to take care of their hair and didn’t have to dress up) Women adhere to traditional gender ideology (sometimes pointing to Islam) in order to claim financial support from husbands (I as a women am going to accept subordination and take on domestic work as responsibilities but as return my husband has to provide for me and protect/respect me) If women has better jobs, they wouldn’t adhere to this gender ideology because they wouldn’t need their husbands gender support FEMINIZATION OF MIDDLE EASTERN LABOUR FORCES IN 1990s Women were pretty active in the workforce Less developed a country more active the women because they have lots of farms etc More developed a country less they are engaged The feminization of workforces refers to the shift from a predominantly male to a predominantly female workforce within a sector or industry The feminization of the labour force in poor coun
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