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Lecture Three: Economic Foundations of Marriage in Palestine [September 17, 2013] A Brief History of Palestine and Israel - Before WWI, the area was under Ottoman Empire. It was not a single unit; divided up into different provinces. In the Ottoman period, the majority population was Muslim, but there was also a sizable number of Christians and small number of Jews. Jewish migration to Palestine began when it was part of the Ottoman Empire. - In the 19 century, following a trend that began earlier in Europe, people in the world began to identify themselves as nation and demand self rule in the right of their own – self rule, sovereignty. Jews and Palestinians began to develop a sense of individualism. Jews were living around the world in diaspora, and Palestinian also developed a national consciousness. They mobilized to achieve national goal of self-determination, sovereignty. - After WWI, Britain established a mandate over Palestine; Jewish migration continued. Palestinians were opposed to Jewish immigration; tension and violence between Arab Palestinians and Zionist Jewish in the inter-war period. - Palestine to the Jewish Zionist seemed the perfect place since this was the place of Jewish originate. Began in 1892, with the first wave of European Jews migrating to this area. By outbreak of WWI, the population of Jews in Palestine had risen to 60,000, and the Arab population was about 16000. By the WWI Britain becomes overlord of Palestine. Following WWI, and holocaust, more and more Jews came - Following WWII, Britain relinquished power to Palestine and the future of Palestine was sent to UN. Came to conclusion that the country should be divided into two different states – one for Jews called Israel and another for Palestinian Arabs called Palestine. The idea of two states for two people originated in 1946,and this model is the model we see perpetuated today for resolving Israeli Jews to Palestinian Arabs. - The UN “partition plan” in 1947 proposed to split Palestine into a Jewish Zionist state and a Palestinian Arab state - The Zionist leadership publicly accepted the plan; the Palestinians and the neighboring Arab states rejected it - Fighting breaks out between the two in late 1947 after UN passed the partition plan. By May 1948, Palestine was evacuated and Jewish leaders pronounced the state of Israel. The neighboring Arab states, including Iraq, Syria, etc. invaded Israeli Palestine, saying they were protecting them from the Zionist. The ensuing violence ended with an armistice in 1949 that resulted in Israel, the Jordanian-occupied West Bank, and the Egyptian- occupied Gaza Strip. The Zionist Jews established state of Israel on land that is bigger than the partition plan of UN - 1948, Israel wins the war against Palestinians and neighboring Arab state, and sends 100Ks of Arabs into neighboring states. The largest group flees into Jordan, some into Egypt, some into Syria and Lebanon. Large proportions that were living in land taken by Israel ended up in the West Bank, the yellow kidney shape area, and the area that surrounds Jerusalem. - In 1967, war broke out once more, providing Israel with a pretext to occupy the West Bank and Gaza Strip - The first Palestinian Intifada (1987-1991) resulted in the start of negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Israel expanded further, into occupied Palestinian territories, where we are today. Israel becomes an occupying power that administers the Palestinians in the West bank through military rule. - The second Palestinian Intifada (2000-2005) broke out in protest against the fruitless peace negotiations Israel and Palestine Today Israel Palestine - Consists of the land captured in 1948 and - Consists of the Occupied West Bank and 1967 Gaza Strip - Internationally recognized, seat on UN - Not regarded as a nation-state, simply a nation, group of people in a specified place - Population dominated by Jewish Israelis - Population dominated by Palestinian Arabs - 20% of Israel’s population is Palestinian (Christian and Muslim) with some Israeli Arabs (Christian, Muslim) who have lived Jewish settlers there before 1948, those who did not choose to flee The Economics of Marriage and Family Formation - Marriage in every society requires considerable economic resources, and custom dictates who pays for what - “Dowry” refers to economic resources that are given by the bride to the groom o Many areas in the patriarchal belt area, women and her family usually pay a dowry to the groom o Dowry given to wife so the wife begins life with economic assets - “Bride-price” refers to the economic resources that are given by the groom to the bride. In the Arab world, the opposite prevails. In the Middle East, most ethnic groups practice bride price, dower, etc. Prompt and Deferred dower is common amongst Muslim marriages o Prompt dower: transfer of wealth from man and woman, and to fund a new conjugal household  For lower-class it encompasses a large portion of a woman’s lifetime possession  For upper class, it was different since
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