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SOCC44 LEC 10.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ivanka Knezevic

Demise of the studio system paramount rulings, 1948: studios were forced to divest themselves of cinema and music recording holdings effect on content: fewer B films, higher investment in a small number ofAfilms (big production, high value ones), disapearance of musicals TV reduced cinema attendance Small independatn cinemas could not afford major studios show fees-they should european films instead Siince the 1960's directed centered production ; studios rent space to independant directors european and independant films came to be regarded as art, hollywood films as entertainment since 1980's cinemas and video distribution companies are again owned by mass media conglomerates-this restircts distribution potention of foreign and independant films blockbooking:A films now carry more risk because they also have to buy B films current cinematic production in NA all films now produced in NAare “independant” - this is the current way to minimize uncertainty “independance” has become a spiurious commodity production of culture theory predicts cyclical change in content and ownership; long periods of concentration, short periods of innovation hoewver development of film after the 1950's has not been cyclical because audiences see entertainment as fashion and needs change for the sake of change reasons: mahor companies are so powerful that.. 1. aesthetic innovation remains limited to niche market 2. technical innovation is co-opted by major companies (an attempt to offset audience attribution due to home media carriers) major companies now own TV production units their parent companie own cinema chains Reception of film: entertainment or art? Remember Bourdieu: high art is defined by support of high status individuals, not by high aesthetic values beginning of commercial film in the 1890's: entertainment film as news: WW1 and WW2, influence of television German expressionist film of the 1920's: no differentiation between film as art and entertainment Established as art in france in the 1930s NAfilms in the 1950s: duality of entertainment and art film (hollywood and euro films) First films were entertainment and actors were compared to like prostitutes, but then with live theatre, it became viewed as art and actors were given a little more respect Baumann 2001: the number of people with high education who had something to appreciate art film, films became to present itself as art to this audience Film audiences 1920-1940: filsm was the most common leisure activity and the mass medium with the largest audience 1950: reduction in cinema attendance
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