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SOCC44 LEC 7.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ivanka Knezevic

Mass media stereotypes in political context mass media usually represewnt more conservative views of gender/race/ethnic ineuqality then the current public opinion need to maximize audiences and avoid alienating any part of it leads to the pervasice effort not to offend anybody tolerance of other views is a part of the left liberal-ideology, but not of the right conservetive ideology therefore representation of any potentially contrroversial issues are closer to the conservative end of the politcal spectrum we get more conservative media then we get public opinion Content: Gerber 1998: Casting theAmerican Scene coded main characters and characteristics (gender, age, ethincihty, class) tv prime time drama casting “frozen in a time warp of obsolete and damaging representations” Cause: interests of advertisers, who have no incentive to sponser programmes that undermine the existing structure of power, exposes inequalties or features less wealthy characters c.f chomsky: mass media propagate dominant ideology: ideology of the dominant class commercial media shun poor people, low income wager earners are virtually invisble despite slight progress toward more equitable representation, men still outnummber women two to one men are much ore likely to be employed and portrayed at work then womne the representation ofAfricanAmerican males (but now females ) increased each year until it reached 171 % of its real life proportion because of the stereotype that they are criminals Asian/pacific characters are still represented with frequency less then one half of their proportion of the US population latino/hispanic characters are represented with frequency less then one their real proportion of the US population television characters are becoming healthier and wealthier the charatcers (esp women) are becoming younger, the stage is set for more younger wonmen- older men relationships women age faster then men and as they age they become more evil there has been a decline in the number of chracters with disabilities, and disabled performers still fo not play “normal” roles mentally ill characters and foreigners fail most often and commite most crime and violent advertisers paying for purchasing power of the audience and the size of the audience gender in the media content feminist psychoanalysis: the central fact of media representation of women is the male gaze – a thourougly male viewpoint; everything is presented from the stantpoint of men women are constructed as the “other” , easily objectified and passive Carlin and Winfrey: professional women as sex objects, pets, children, or mothers Stevens,Aubrey: sexual double standard emerging stereotypes that modify hegomonic femininity conventionally attractive superherione/adventuress, girl power complexity of hegemonic masculinty: traditional, suthern, sports, coporate, working class, redneck Both Oprah and Dr Phil are authorities on interpersonal relationships. For the same reasons or different? Oprah has an authority of kin-ship (like an aunt, or grandmother) because it is percierved that women are skillful in interpersonal relationships Dr Phil also uses medical and corporate authority race and ethnicity in the media content news: use of white men as authoritative sources. Minority members appear as sources only in stories on “minority issues”, and crime racial minorities and immigrants are over represented in both american and canadiam crime news stories, although crime rate is lower among immigrants then among canandian born intra group diversity is supressed in mainstream media entertainment: low prescence of members of racial.thnivc minroty chracters justification: white majority in audiences Taylor et al: increases prescence of minorities in advertising reflects the prescence of minority middle class disposable income CBRC study 2000: most canadians expect and want to see more visible minorities in the media “ethnic media” perspective on mass media reception the hypodermic needle (“magic bullet”) perspective dominant in the 20th century mass medis are so powerful they can “inject” their message into the audiences:
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