Week 2 Notes
•John Stuart Mill--“It is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made, have lightened
the day’s toil of any human being.”(2)
•Machinery is intended to cheapen commodities, and by shortening the portion of the
working-day in which the labourer works for himself, to lengthen the other portion that he
gives, without an equivalent, to the capitalist. (2)…producing surplus-value
•Fully developed machinery consists of three essentially different parts, the motor mechanism,
the transmitting mechanism, and the tool or working machine (3)
•Evident in the period of Modern Industry is that these implements even under their form of
manual tools, are already machines the only difference being that it is driven by a mechanical
component and not man.
•It was not the invention that gave rise to any industrial revolution, but that invention of
machines that made a revolution in the form of [that] invention necessary
oHowever this does not prevent such a change of form from producing great technical
alterations in the mechanism that was originally constructed to be driven by man alone.
Things like sewing machines, and bread-making machines, have been constructed to be
driven by human and by purely mechanical motive power.
o“The machine which is the starting-point of the industrial revolution, supersedes the
workman by a mechanism operating with a number of similar tools, and set in motion by
a single motive power, whatever the form of that power may be.
•“The increase in the size of the machine, and in the number of its working tools, calls for a
more massive mechanism to drive it; and this mechanism requires, in order to overcome its
resistance, a mightier moving power than that of man, apart from the fact that man is a very
imperfect instrument for producing uniform continued motion...it is evident that he can be
replaced by natural forces.” (3)
•“The number of tools that a machine can bring into play, simultaneously, is from the very
first emancipated from the organic limits that hedge in the tools of a handicraftsman.” (4)
•The discussion is about man as mere motive power and man as the workman or operator that
is brought into contrast