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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Alejandro Paz

IEEB01 – Human, Inhuman, And Non Human: Lecture 3 Last week Foucault: - Scientific definition of madness, example of how human’s came into being in the moment through the scientific production and understanding of mental illness - Separated worlds, concentration of people outside the order - Foucault is interested in this human science elaborates the way of knowing o We all become our own asylum masters, our own perpetual judges - Science and technology’s role in defining the relation of humans to science and technology Das Kapital – Capital: A Critique of Political Economy by Karl Marx - Karl Marx is a historical argument - Karl Marx’s “Labour theory of value” o Theorized the commodity in a different way, he saw it as having two faces at the same time  Exchange value – way we are most likely to understanding value in the market place  Use value – The utility that we can bend a commodity to o It is not a commodity if it does not have both these features - Example: 1 lb of coal dug up in 1 hr, then that coal now has 1 hrs worth of human labour in it. We see the coal, but not the hours went to be dug. There is a relation established by the very production of the commodity between the labour a human puts into it and the commodity itself. - In capitalist mode of production, a worker needs to produce enough value in order to subsist. o Must produce enough in order to subsist through sales in the market (i.e., buy food for oneself) o Everything produced above subsistence is surplus value. - Commodity fetishism, the individual is unable to see the labour value of the commodity but only as it belonging to the owner Discussion Question: Karl Marx (1818-1883) was (and in many ways still is) one of the most important critics of capitalism, as well as being one of the most influential theorist of society and social meaning. Among other things, he is famous for his “labour theory of value,” where it is not the market that attributes value to a commodity (e.g., through supply and demand) but rather the amount of human labour that goes into it; capital is produced through the surplus value that a human being constitutes, i.e., the extra value over and above the wages needed for bare subsistence. In the section we are reading from Marx’s famous study, Capital, he is discussing theories of the machine and what makes industrial manufacturing qualitatively different from any prior mode of production. In your paragraph, discuss some of the criteria he sets for distinguishing the machine from the tool, and some of the effects he mentions on the life of the human worker. What is machine? Shalini - The machine replaces human workers by o Increasing profit (surplus value) o Acts as a certain amount of congealed human labour  Allowing to produce with commodity with less human labour Vinoth - Breakdown of the components of a machine - Three ways of producing stuff (within the article) o Artisan  Tools limited to the amount of force a single human can use  Limited by the physical configuration of the human (i.e., two hands),  The human in expending energy (amount of hours that can be worked)  [355] Limitation of accuracy o Manufacturer  Division of labour • Different people do different work • Assembly line in one site  Limitations: hours worked, configuration, stren
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