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STAB22H3 Lecture Notes - Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Health Canada, Eth

Course Code
Ken Butler

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- Statistics helps us to see the world more clearly & accurately.
So, What is (Are) Statistics?
What is Statistics? (sing. form)
- way of reasoning that uses collection of tools & methods to help comprehend the world
What are Statistics? (pl. form)
- specific calculations made from data
What are data?
- datum is sing. form
- values, but it takes into acc't the context they came in
- very conspicuous to see ppl collecting data from us, about us
- ex. UPS - collects data for every package it ships & delivers and puts it all together in a
large database
- helps w/ making sense of the complicated world we live in
- ex. by evaluating risk of GM foods that Canadian Food Inspection Agency is looking
- ex. by evaluating safety & effectiveness of new drugs sent for approval to Health
- ex. predicting # of AIDs cases
- ex. #customers likely to respond to sale in mall
- this discipline is needed whenever
- data is involved
- there is need to comprehend world
Statistics in a Word

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- Statistics is about VARIATION
- data varies b/c
- we aren't able to observe eth
- what is measured and is observed, it is done imperfectly
(b/c humans are not perfect)
- Statistics helps us to work with this variation by:
- understanding it
- modelling it
=> by doing this, can see thro it, thereby deciphering the underlying truths & patterns
An. seeing forest thro. trees
- What is a central challenge of the Statistics discipline is making sense of variations in data
How does this Book Help?
- what is done w/ data can be better comprehended if pic's are made for it
- book goes thro. entire process of
- thinking about prob
- finding & showing results
- telling others about discovery
>- each step has data displayed to improve comprehension & insight
- how to best comprehend Statistics is when it is put to use
3 Steps to doing Statistics correctly
- know how you are going to progress & why
- the actual doing of calculations, and making displays of data
- not the most impt pt
- ... about what has been learned
- cannot properly have done Statistics unless you have explained results to some1 that can
comprehend conclusions that came from it

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Where are we going? section
- comes at every chapter's beginning
- real-world questions that will be addressed w/ statistics and be doable after chapter is
Step-by-Step section
- aka worked example
- applies new concepts learned in chapter
For Example box
- gives concise way of applying just-learnt ideas & methods
- give an idea as to how statisticans approach and solve prob's
- show how to think about prob, what to show, and how to tell what it all means
Just Checking section
- few short q's w/ little calculation
- fast way to make sure you have understood chapter's basic ideas
- ans's for these q's at end of chapter
- understanding impt concepts is helped by knowing formulas & protocols for Statistics,
and why they work in the case they are used
- gives concise, clear explanation of math that supports the statistical method used
ActivStats box
- signalling that the multimedia available in DVD can help better understand what is
being said for this paragraph/section etc.
- look for corresponding activity in chapter on DVD
What can Go Wrong?
- helps to avoid common mistakes
- that often come from
- using method in wrong context
- misinterpretation of results
- can help cope with challenge that there is multiple right ans's in Statistics
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