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Statistics (282)
STAB22H3 (224)
Ken Butler (34)


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Ken Butler

STATISTICS (CHAPTER READINGS) CHAPTER 1 - STATS STARTS HERE! - Statistics helps us to see the world more clearly & accurately. So, What is (Are) Statistics? [GBOX] What is Statistics? (sing. form) - way of reasoning that uses collection of tools & methods to help comprehend the world What are Statistics? (pl. form) - specific calculations made from data What are data? - datum is sing. form - values, but it takes into acc't the context they came in [GBOX] [1] - very conspicuous to see ppl collecting data from us, about us - ex. UPS - collects data for every package it ships & delivers and puts it all together in a large database [2] Statistics - helps w/ making sense of the complicated world we live in - ex. by evaluating risk of GM foods that Canadian Food Inspection Agency is looking into - ex. by evaluating safety & effectiveness of new drugs sent for approval to Health Canada - ex. predicting # of AIDs cases - ex. #customers likely to respond to sale in mall - this discipline is needed whenever - data is involved - there is need to comprehend world Statistics in a Word [3] - Statistics is about VARIATION - data varies b/c - we aren't able to observe eth - what is measured and is observed, it is done imperfectly (b/c humans are not perfect) - Statistics helps us to work with this variation by: - understanding it - modelling it => by doing this, can see thro it, thereby deciphering the underlying truths & patterns An. seeing forest thro. trees - What is a central challenge of the Statistics discipline is making sense of variations in data [4] How does this Book Help? - what is done w/ data can be better comprehended if pic's are made for it - book goes thro. entire process of - thinking about prob - finding & showing results - telling others about discovery >- each step has data displayed to improve comprehension & insight - how to best comprehend Statistics is when it is put to use [5] 3 Steps to doing Statistics correctly - THINK - know how you are going to progress & why - SHOW - the actual doing of calculations, and making displays of data - not the most impt pt - TELL - ... about what has been learned - cannot properly have done Statistics unless you have explained results to some1 that can comprehend conclusions that came from it [6] Where are we going? section - comes at every chapter's beginning - real-world questions that will be addressed w/ statistics and be doable after chapter is over Step-by-Step section - aka worked example - applies new concepts learned in chapter For Example box - gives concise way of applying just-learnt ideas & methods - give an idea as to how statisticans approach and solve prob's - show how to think about prob, what to show, and how to tell what it all means [7] Just Checking section - few short q's w/ little calculation - fast way to make sure you have understood chapter's basic ideas - ans's for these q's at end of chapter [8] MATH Box - understanding impt concepts is helped by knowing formulas & protocols for Statistics, and why they work in the case they are used - gives concise, clear explanation of math that supports the statistical method used [9] ActivStats box - signalling that the multimedia available in DVD can help better understand what is being said for this paragraph/section etc. - look for corresponding activity in chapter on DVD [10] What can Go Wrong? - helps to avoid common mistakes - that often come from - using method in wrong context - misinterpretation of results - can help cope with challenge that there is multiple right ans's in Statistics [11] By Hand - how the Statistics problem is done on paper is what is shown for this section [12] On the Computer section - gives you a general output of what should be the results you get should you have done that problem [13] Time out - a section isolated from main text that discusses interesting or impt side issue [14,15] What Have we Learned? - part of textbook that displays brief summary of key concepts learned thus far in this chapter or section - lists terms - summary of key skills that would be obtained from reading chapter - for checking knowledge of impt ideas in chapter - need to have these aspects to be ready to handle Statistics exam - skills - know terms - understand concepts - do exercises to help learn to use Statistics that was just read about [16] Orange T Marked Exercises - data for these exercises are on DVD - Rec - use technology as you work thro these [17] - exercises that are similar to each other are grouped together => either before or after each other - at the back are answers, not solutions - ans's are only rough layout of complete solution
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