WSTA03 Lec 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Women's and Gender Studies
Anissa Talahite- Moodley

WSTALec 4. Jan 29, 2014  Multiracial/Multiethnic Feminism o Liberal/radical/multiethnic etc. are all connected o Are all in dialogue with each other  Introducing Multiracial/multiethnic feminism o New questions/perspectives introduced by “multiracial/multiethnic feminism”?  Spirituality/ spiritual activism - about finding/redefining the spiritual in terms of feminism  Balancing gender and cultural differences; putting them in dialogue  Cultural dimension - feminism is contextualized within culture. Feminism in one culture is different in another culture; there are different types of feminism: • African-American • Latino • Black feminism • Asian-American o About contextualizing what it means to be a woman or man o Class, cultural variables  More inclusive  About relativizing women from different class, religion, age groups  Main principles o Gender is not something that can be looked at individually; need to look at other things such as ethnicity, race, class  “holy trinity”  First categories introduced in the theory o Later, new categories (sexuality, age, disability) were added  Diagram o Ethnicity, “race”, class, religion, place all intersect with gender o Other things that might intersect with or impact gender: location, geographic location, country, hierarchies, caste system  Complex inequality o Something theorized by Black Feminists - argued that inequalities are complex; not simple  E.g. liberal feminists say women are oppressed due to gender - but it is actually more complex than that o Complex and unstable system  E.g. how a woman’s situation can change -  Cont’d o Need to look at gender and need to look at other factors o Individual experience in the middle - around this we have friends, society, workplace o At the macro level - patriarchy, colonialism, globalization, racism, etc. o These are all interconnected o This theory suggests we need to pay attention to the bigger system; patriarchy is not just gender - has to do with racism, globalization, etc. o Gender is just one aspect  Matrix of domination (Hill Collins) o Theorized the idea of intersectionality and the matrix of domination o Domination represents many components and she suggests that there are strands of oppression and feminists work to disentangle patriarchy, colonialism, sexism, ableism, homophobia, and they are all interconnected  Multiple forms of identity o This perspective gives the idea that being a woman is something that should not be taken for granted; woman is informed by many things other than gender  VIDEO: Example: Caregivers in Canada o This has been around for a long time but is an invisible issue; human rights issue o These women have been subject to abuse and sometimes lose their passports o There is lots to be analyzed because it is NOT just an issue of gender o Different intersecting systems of oppression:  Race  Class  Globalization of labour - the way inequalities between global north and global south require people to have to travel o Liberal feminists encourage women to go to work; say that is a form of liberation. They push for affordable child care, etc. o Day care center workers are some of the lowest paid people in Toronto o Socialist feminists argue that work such as nannies, day care workers are not paid so much is because it is similar to the work of a mother. Mother’s work is not recognized as work  Invisible labour o These workers that travel across the world are an important source of work, but their work is taken for granted and seen as secondary o Gender issue - has to do with how gender determines work; but also a problem of race, colonialism, globalization o Liberal and radical feminism have limitations  Radical feminists say families are a form of oppression  Intersectionality (Crenshaw) o Issues such as: how gender oppression needs to be contextualized within a larger context o In some cases, it can be gender or race. In most cases, it is the combined effect of gender and race o Kimberle Crenshaw: important figure in Black Feminism; came up with term intersectionality  Combined effect of practices based on race and sex - not the sum of race and sex discrimination  Crenshaw’s image of the road intersection o Interconnected forms of oppression that will be illustrated  More examples o Are these gender issues? o People describe these as gender issues: o Eating disorders - regarded as gendered because of the way the media tends to promote images of thinness that affect young teenagers  In the book, argue that it is not just a gender issue; it is bigger than that. There might be different factors, such as stress ( not having enough money, being harassed)  Could be the idea of racialization - in the media, there are always images of thin, white women  How much money do people have? More unhealthy food is cheaper. Therefore, it is a race and class issue as well o Gender stereotypes in the media  Pg. 235 in book - talk about certain racial stereotypes in the media  Images of women are not just gendered; are also racialized  In book - talk about stereotypes - Jezebel  E.g. movie Precious - a stereotype of race in terms of class, images  E.g. movies like “the Help”  Hill Collins o Gender violence  Vandana Shiva - spoke about this and exploitation of the environment and how they are interconnected. Talked about land grabbing and “quick profit”. Quick profit is al
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