WSTA03 Lec 6.docx

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Women's and Gender Studies
Anissa Talahite- Moodley

WSTA01 Lec 6  Feminist Studies of Men o How are men gendered? What are the issues affecting men as “men”?  Liberal feminists - try to get foot in the door; about getting into male- dominated world • This house is not equal - males are on the top and females are in the basement  Radical feminists - getting to the roots, trying to see how that house was formed  try to change outline of this house  MEMRF - more than just one system that needs to be restructured (colonialism, racism, etc.)  There were men supporting liberal feminists (voting for women), women’s struggles for equal rights  Why an international men’s day? o International women’s day = March 8 o International men’s day = November 19  IMD o About supporting positive role models, solidarity  1. How are men gendered? o Gender studies focus on trying to understand how masculinity is constructed o Masculinity studies: field of study that focuses on the various forms of masculinity in society o Important concept: hegemonic masculinity  Uncovering men’s issues o What are the issues that affect men as “men”?  Stigma of men portraying feminine roles  physical figure  Prostate cancer  Men being portrayed as aggressive o Suicide (4x higher than for women) o Homicide - more likely of this o Higher risk of alcohol abuse o Homelessness o Prostate cancer (affects as many men as breast cancer affects women)  2. What is masculinity? o According to this studies done on the US Navy, men have certain traits that are valued as part of what it means to be a man  Tough, strong, heterosexual, do not complain, unemotional, aggressiveness  Examples: James Bond, Dr. Who, Marlboro Man o Female figures who are also “masculine” in the media: Mulan, o Males who are more feminine and are still heroes:  Main guy from Scrubs o There are a lack of role models of men that are not “strong” and are more “feminine”  Have a disadvantage  Masculinity as socially constructed o Social construction based on a hierarchical relationship o Hegemonic masculinity: dominant, heteronormative,  Type of masculinity that relates to a system where some men are dominant  Defined by what it is not being a man is defined as what is not: a woman, not needing protection, not being needy,  Hegemonic masculinity is also dominant against other men (gay men, etc.)  Defined in relation to what women, gay men, subordinate (racialized) men are not o Masculinity is global - it is about a social, economic construction o VIDEO: Professor Raewyn Connell  Masculinity is not an attitude, not a set of hormones, it is what men do in the world; has a relationship to biology but not a fixed relationship  Women can act in a masculine way but it’s usually men that do  What are hegemonic masculinities? • It concerns relationships among women and among other men • Hierarchy among masculinities - one kind is honoured and “top dog”, while others are marginalized o Masculinity is defined in a binary in relation to women and other men o “hegemonic” - one is valued over the others  System based on dominance and privilege o Has to do with a social form of behaviour, embodied practices (sports, business, clubs, etc.) o How do people “do” masculinity?  When in groups, the kids that take over as leaders  Hegemonic masculinity cont’d o Some types of masculinity that are detrimental to men (or to women):  Drinking  Violence, aggression  “lone ranger”  Male bakers that use exact measurements - are stigmatized by women who do not need to measure amounts o Men embody masculinity but women can also portray masculinity  Can women perform masculinity? o E.g. Frida Kahlo - Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair  Wore men’s clothes  Looks aggressive  Cropped hair  Masculine poses o E.g. Margaret Thatcher displayed hegemonic masculinity  Cropped her hair short  Passed anti-women laws o Women also embody masculinity - those high in businesses  liberal feminist idea  Need to prove they are strong, powerful  Is masculinity always hegemonic? o Forest fire firefighters vs. firefighters such as those during 9/11  Those firefighters that risk their lives (such as during 9/11) are seen as heroes while those fighting forest fires are not o Prison guards - marginalized  3. What are multiple masculinities? o Men also face intersections (class, race, immigration status, religion, age, disability) -
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