Epistemology - it is a theory of knowledge. According to Joey, every theory of knowing includes 3 things:
believe in the knower, the known and the process of knowing. Every believe system, there are those
who in the know, what is known and how we know.
Scientific approach (positivist), also instrumental paradigm, is the idea that there are facts out there to
be known. The facts speak for themselves. Scientific approach emphasizes objectivity. It believes that
good science should be value free from one’s own values. They think that a when a researcher brings his
own personality and emotions, it brings mistakes. There is a power relationship between the researcher
and the person being researched.
There is an example of the scientific that there are only 2 sexes – male and female. All scientific research
is based on that there are only 2 completely different sexes. It looks at the power relation and social
structure and how they interact and promote actions towards justice.
The critical paradigm promotes action for change. It looks at oppression, colonization, the dominant and
the dominator. Interactive paradigm – is the ethnographic methodology. The critical paradigm gives a
critique of the scientific method and support the position that knowledge is socially constructed. Who
the knower is, what is known and how is known is socially constructed. Pg.36 we give order to our
perception...The process of understanding is part of knowle