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Women's and Gender Studies
Jin Park

2012-10-24 IEEC31H3/WSTC21H3 F Lecture • East Asia had a non-western trajectory of medicine • How images and knowledge travel between the East and West o How the East is a passive recipient of these images and knowledge • East and South Asian countries and understanding of scientific knowledge connect Euro-American knowledge and culture • How these East Asian regimes of science coincide with European and American science. Are they similar trajectories or different • Stem cell research in East and South Asian countries • Rise of modern science in East Asian o Japanese colonialism in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century o Japan first country that opened up to western science and medicine o Japan had a policy of self-isolation before the 1868-1912 (Meiji Era) from western countries other than the Dutch o Meiji Era= restored the emperor system and implemented science in the modern development of bureaucratic system of Japan o Reverse the self-isolation to becoming a modern country and this would be done by strengthening the military o Iwakura Mission= constituted by the Emperor and had missionaries and politicians as well as scientifically minded scholars that were sent to many countries as part of their modern development expedition  Important to observe modern nations and states= found that there was a lot of investment in enriching science and medicine and also strengthening the military for modern development.  Before the Iwakura mission Dutch physicians would come in and teach in Japan on human anatomy and curb epidemic disease • Taught in remote area of Nagasaki o Late nineteenth century after the Iwakura mission  Invite German scientists to teach Japanese students and also study racial origins of Japanese people  Wilhelm= thought about Japanese racial origins and hypothesized the effects of mixing two Japanese races and if it would strengthen the race  Baelz= German medical doctor; study origins of Japanese race particularly Yamato blood o Refers to bloodline of imperial families and see if it remained pure blood for centuries • Important for the Japanese to establish a sense of racial/ ethnic superiority over other Asian groups and also to overcome a sense of inferiority when compared to Euro- Americans (racial) o Not only did German doctors come to teach in Japan but also many students went to German universities and research institutes to learn medicine and scientific knowledge  600 Japanese students who worked in German institutes and universities o Dr. Ehrlich= German MD; won Nobel Peace Prize for developing medication/ cure for syphilis o Sahachiro Hata= worked with Dr. Ehrlich; Hata helped developed the cure for syphilis Salvarsan  Twentieth century scientific discoveries by German scientists were assisted by Japanese students • How East Asian nations and scientific agent went to the West and also significantly contributed to western science • Bring back work experience and training as a scientist in Japan and practice; and apply knowledge in the domestic context o Developing effective medicine; route of medicine from how transnational forces brought it back to the Japanese context o Shibasaburo= worked with Robert Koch (modern bacteriology; also for germ theory)  Studied in Berlin and developed the infectious agent of the Bubonic plague in 1894  Many of return scholars worked/experimented in the colonies o Shinpei= studied in Koch institute and also created the Principles of National Hygiene o Scientific colonialism= Japan
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