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Masculinity study made visible thru women n gender studies. Images of masculinity are often confusing
and contradictory> in what sense? How media represent the ideal men? Tht men are courageous,
competent, they shud always be in control and the images in the movies are bound. EX: brad pit, tom
cruise. On the other hand, we have the genre romantic, sensitive men EX: brain donsley, Lonardo (in
titanic). Women on the other praise men who are sensitive, and who can admit to his volubility, they
admire sensitivity of men and at the same time they admire the toughness in men. This is very
contradictory. These two messages are contradictory and hard to fulfill. There is a crisis in masculinity
and feminity. Studies show most heterosexual men fall short when they have to fulfill both these
Male standards: six historical periods
History of western civilization, we can put in in 6 historical periods.
1. Epic maleepic make.: in the first period, the epic Saugus of greeek and roman around 800 Bc. In
this period the ideal man is the . the major features of this masculinity are: action, beginning of
2. Spritual man: 400/1000 AD. It is the time of the teaching of Jesus, and the early church fathers,
in this era the ideal man is the spiritual man. Major features: restrained sexual activity, anti-
feminine, anti homo sexual attitude, strong patriarchal vies.
3. Chivalric man: 12 century. In this era feudalism and chivalric court of honour, define the court of
masculinity. The ideal man was chivalric man the major features: self-sacrifice, courage, physical
strength, honour and service to the lady.
4. 16th century social system, who embodies rationality, intellectual, and self-exploration.
5. Bourgeois man: success in business, status, and worldly manner. Antipenurship, coloniusm
exploring the world.
6. Modern man: he emerged in early 19th century, this ideal type is individualistic, solitary,
independent, fighting against the wall. This is the man whose masculinity, who masculinity be
tested by war and competition. Feature of this dominant form of masculinity are: war, physical
violence, heroic independence, risk taking dominance, competition and a muscular body.
The dominance or the hegemonic mascunity > culturally, normative ideals of masculinity within a
structure of social relations where some men are subordinated. Hegemonic masculinity is in our culture,
are deemed as normal, oppose some men and subordinate some men. The hegemonic masculinity we
are dealing with power men, they decide which traits are ideal. In our history they were white, middle
class, and heterosexual men. It does not mean they enjoy all privileges but just means they hev the
power to decide what the norm is. This means other masculine styles are rendered inadequate and
inferior. Hegemonic masculinity harms other men, > men in color, poor men and non heterosexual men.
It also harms women because it is in opposition to that what is feminine.