October 17.docx

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30 Mar 2012

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Lecture October 17
1763 Royal Proclamation & 1876 Indian Act 22/10/2011 12:29:00 PM
How do we reflect within ourselves-our own sense of self as Hingley puts it
come to the voyage of discovery-post colonialism colonialism not a thing of
the past
-To be postcolonial means embarking on a personal voyage of discovery
-Personal introspection-process and journey of decolonization-see self as
humanist-but not fully understand what it means to be oppressed-he locates
himself, male, Euro Canadian shared his experiences as a child, power
dynamic form early-how he benefitted from the oppression of others due to
his-as he puts it race gender and class
-Humanist perspective-love compassion for all.
-How do we reproduce dominance in our everyday life /what about the
notion of entitlement?
-Experience from both sides hockey tournament-we are all equal but are
we/so much power dynamic embedded
-Became a teacher-curriculum problematic-Riel rebellion or resistance?
-Voyage of self-discovery is a journey embarking on an introspective and
reflective journey is a personal journey that is difficult.
-I learned that examining one self honestly can create feelings of
uncertainty as ones secure position in the world may have to be reevaluated
and reconstructed to reflect a newly developed perspective.
-What is a Treaty?
-Treaty is an agreement between two parties. Two governments.
-How parties intend to “treat” each other
-Before a treaty is signed both must negotiate (discuss) the intent of the
-Parties negotiate they speak and listen to each other's concerns and
eventually come to a decision
RCAP/treaty making among First Nations- Nations
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-Reinforce that different nations had own customs/laws regarding treaties
-Treaties signed based on need for protection, resources, trade, peace,
cooperation/sometimes territory involved e.g., Five Nations Confederacy or
Hauenosaunee-500 yrs before Cartier. One dish one spoon wampum belt-
what belongs to one belongs to all-nations at war decided to unite as one
live under the great Law of Peace i.e. Great Law of Peace-about how to live,
govern, conflict resolution-peace
-Laws are understood by each nation through oral traditions ceremonies,
protocol and so on
-Had systems of Governance and alliances and treaty making with other
First Peoples/E.g.. Wendat Confederacies as well, traded with other
nations/Such as the Ojibwe and Montagnais
-Treaties seen as Sacred instrument as reinforced by Chief Gosnell of the
Nisga‟a Nation
RCAP/treaty making among Europeans
-Early nation building in Europe
-Nations states were emerging
-Church less dominant decline in religious authority
-Prior you had communities connected to prince, nobles etc
-Treaties came out of struggle of Europeans to assert selves as sovereign
nations & to be recognized as independent nations-to establish peace or land
-E.g. Treaty of Westphalia (recognized France Spain as separate nations
Early treaties among First Nations and European nations (text)
-Some treaties were formalized-ceremony, feast-gift giving
-E.g., Dutch French British-negotiated treaties for various reasons, peace,
-Some First Nations wampum belt created to record treaty event in a
symbolic form
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-Some First Nations used Tobacco to formalize the treaty and their
understanding of it. This is key consider- sacredness of Tobacco to First
Nations people. For Europeans formalize treaty by signing on a piece of
paper (worldviews)
Before Confederation/why make treaties First Nations and European
Treaty Making
-Indigenous population (majority)
-Settlers signed treaties (lived on small piece of land) small in numbers/Sign
treaties for trade, alliances, friendship & more/At this time European groups
in competition for Aboriginal land/resources/Europeans felt vulnerable
against both Indigenous and competing powers each colonial group very
strategic in securing alliances (important for Europeans to do so in quest to
claim land)/E.g., French, Algonquin economic alliance (fur trade) First
Peoples benefited from forming alliances-trade/Woolen blankets steel knives,
iron, fish hooks, guns during hunting-war made life easier-initially treaties
signed to establish cooperation, peace, mutual aid /very important this
was initially/Shortly after as text noted LAND became the most important
issue in what is now called Canada
-Haudensaunee allied to British
-With Later conflict among different Nations had first written treaties in
1624-1645 1653 (peace treaties) French & Haudensaunee /For e.g. Great
Peace of Montreal (1701)-Haudensaunee to be neutral in English/ French
-Many First Nations traditions and protocols followed in treaty making.
Important to consider (European perspectives/Aboriginal peoples
-Silver covenant chain (Wampum belt) (constant state of deterioration must
be attended to) ongoing needs to be looked after/Reflective of
Haudensaunee perspectives on treaties
-“the colonist & the Indians are said to be joined by a silver covenant chain
that is sturdy, does not rust but requires periodic polishing to remove tarnish
and restore its brightness”
-Both groups used treaties that reflected their historicity at the time with
nations within their own groups
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